Skip to main content

Table 2 Nutrient and food group intake by quartile of potential renal acid load, the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (Ansan-Ansung)

From: Positive association between dietary acid load and future insulin resistance risk: findings from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

  Potential renal acid load (PRAL) Ptrend
Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest)
Nutrient intake
 Energy, kcal/d 2030 ± 686a 2027 ± 631 1949 ± 576 2020 ± 599 0.0002
 % Energy from carbohydrate 76.1 ± 5.6 73.7 ± 5.5 72.8 ± 5.8 68.1 ± 7.0 < 0.0001
 % Energy from fat 11.2 ± 4.5 12.5 ± 4.6 12.9 ± 4.8 15.9 ± 5.5 < 0.0001
 % Energy from total protein 12.0 ± 2.1 12.2 ± 2.1 12.4 ± 2.2 14.0 ± 2.6 < 0.0001
 % Energy from plant protein 8.3 ± 1.3 8.1 ± 1.2 7.9 ± 1.1 7.5 ± 1.2 < 0.0001
 % Energy from animal protein 3.7 ± 2.2 4.2 ± 2.3 4.5 ± 2.3 6.5 ± 3.0 < 0.0001
 Dietary fiber, g/d 19.2 ± 6.9 13.8 ± 4.4 11.9 ± 4.4 10.8 ± 4.0 < 0.0001
 Phosphorous, mg/d 959.5 ± 178.9 942.4 ± 167.0 935.6 ± ±174.2 994.0 ± 186.5 0.0007
 Potassium, mg/d 2995 ± 567 2446 ± 402 2219 ± 411 2149 ± 416 < 0.0001
 Calcium, mg/d 531.9 ± 190.5 476.8 ± 158.9 447.9 ± 164.4 444.4 ± 164.7 < 0.0001
 Magnesium, mg/d 178.0 ± 58.4 147.2 ± 48.8 135.8 ± 50.5 136.2 ± 48.9 < 0.0001
Food group consumption, g/d
 Grains and grain products 743.0 ± 251.6 794.3 ± 245.4 790.1 ± 243.4 771.1 ± 227.9 0.0027
 Rice 663.6 ± 234.9 696.0 ± 220.7 692.3 ± 229.9 650.2 ± 201.4 0.8833
 Vegetables 495.3 ± 248.3 337.5 ± 156.8 252.6 ± 127.9 224.4 ± 124.8 < 0.0001
 Fruits 407.6 ± 395.2 207.4 ± 182.5 145.0 ± 133.5 118.9 ± 107.6 < 0.0001
 Meat 40.6 ± 39.9 49.3 ± 47.8 50.9 ± 45.8 85.5 ± 73.5 < 0.0001
 Fish and shellfish 32.4 ± 32.6 35.9 ± 37.9 37.6 ± 34.5 57.7 ± 51.0 < 0.0001
 Milk and dairy products 111.0 ± 139.6 114.0 ± 133.5 107.9 ± 118.1 99.8 ± 115.8 0.0079
 Soft drinks 19.5 ± 49.3 23.3 ± 52.2 22.9 ± 48.1 29.7 ± 51.4 0.0215
  1. Q quartile, PRAL potential renal acid load
  2. aMean ± standard deviation (all such values)