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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants at baseline by quartile of potential renal acid load, the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (Ansan-Ansung)

From: Positive association between dietary acid load and future insulin resistance risk: findings from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

  Total Potential renal acid load (PRAL) Ptrend
Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest)
n 5406 1351 1352 1352 1351  
Median PRAL, mEq/d 5.9 −7.2 3.0 8.5 14.7  
NEAP, mEq/d 43.7 ± 10.5a 31.0 ± 5.3 40.6 ± 3.1 46.7 ± 3.4 56.5 ± 6.9 < 0.0001
Urine pH 5.7 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.8 5.6 ± 0.8 0.0011
Sex       < 0.0001
 Men 2707 (50.07) 546 (40.41) 664 (49.11) 679 (50.22) 818 (60.55)  
 Women 2699 (49.93) 805 (59.59) 688 (50.89) 673 (49.78) 533 (39.45)  
Age, yrs 51.5 ± 8.7 54.0 ± 8.9 52.0 ± 8.9 50.7 ± 8.4 49.4 ± 7.9 < 0.0001
Area of residence       < 0.0001
 Ansung (rural) 2545 (47.08) 929 (68.76) 653 (48.30) 503 (37.20) 460 (34.05)  
 Ansan (urban) 2861 (52.92) 422 (31.24) 699 (51.70) 849 (62.80) 891 (65.95)  
Education level       < 0.0001
 ≤ elementary school 1684 (31.15) 624 (46.19) 440 (32.54) 361 (26.70) 259 (19.17)  
 middle/high school 2975 (55.03) 617 (45.67) 751 (55.55) 785 (58.06) 822 (60.84)  
 ≥ college 747 (13.82) 110 (8.14) 161 (11.91) 206 (15.24) 270 (19.99)  
Smoking status       < 0.0001
 Never 3109 (57.51) 888 (65.73) 781 (57.77) 786 (58.14) 654 (48.41)  
 Past 849 (15.70) 154 (11.40) 222 (16.42) 222 (16.42) 251 (18.58)  
 Current 1448 (26.79) 309 (22.87) 349 (25.81) 344 (25.44) 446 (33.01)  
Alcohol consumption, g/d 9.6 ± 22.1 7.5 ± 20.3 8.9 ± 23.0 9.2 ± 22.0 12.7 ± 22.6 0.2260
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.0 ± 2.9 24.0 ± 3.0 24.0 ± 2.9 24.0 ± 2.9 23.9 ± 2.9 0.2476
Total physical activity, MET-hr/wk 169.2 ± 104.5 189.8 ± 113.6 175.2 ± 108.2 153.9 ± 96.3 157.8 ± 95.0 < 0.0001
Family history of diabetes       0.0053
 Yes 562 (10.40) 115 (8.51) 131 (9.69) 166 (12.28) 150 (11.10)  
 No 4844 (89.60) 1236 (91.49) 1221 (90.31) 1186 (87.72) 1201 (88.90)  
History of hypertension       < 0.0001
 Yes 1410 (26.08) 405 (29.98) 367 (27.14) 330 (24.41) 308 (22.80)  
 No 3996 (73.92) 946 (70.02) 985 (72.86) 1022 (75.59) 1043 (77.20)  
History of hyperlipidemia       0.0670
 Yes 1251 (23.14) 300 (22.21) 300 (22.19) 313 (23.15) 338 (25.02)  
 No 4155 (76.86) 1051 (77.79) 1052 (77.81) 1039 (76.85) 1013 (74.98)  
  1. Q quartile, PRAL potential renal acid load, NEAP net endogenous acid production, MET metabolic equivalent task
  2. aValues indicate the number (percentage) for categorical variables and mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables