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Table 2 Quality assessment of the included studies [30]

From: Change in mean salt intake over time using 24-h urine versus overnight and spot urine samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Domain Specific item Watson 1970 [25] Luft 1982 [26] Luft 1982 [15] Liu 1986 [16] Liu 1987 [17] He 1993 [18] Yasutake 2015 [31] Yasutake 2016 [19] Do 2016 [22] Petersen 2016 [11] Huang 2018 [23] Dong 2018 [24] Kim 2018 [20] Kramers 2019 [21]
Sample and sample size Non-homogenous sample 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.5
N > 50 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0
Statistics to assess validity Test of mean, median or difference 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Correlations 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.5 0.0
Agreement 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.0
Data collection Verbal or written instructions to collect urine 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Spillage or missed voids assessed post-collection 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0
Seasonality Considered 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Supplements Included and data considered in analysis 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
SCOREa 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.0 4.5 3.5 2.0
QUALITYb P P A A A G A A A G A G G P
  1. a Score interpretations: ≥5.0, very good to excellent quality; ≥3.5 and < 5.0, good quality; ≥2.5 and < 3.5, acceptable or reasonable quality; < 2.5, poor quality
  2. b P poor; A acceptable; G good