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Table 1 Prevalence of depressive symptoms according to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health characteristics

From: Lower serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is associated with depressive symptoms in older adults in Southern Brazil

Characteristics (n = 557) Total Presence of depressive symptoms
n % % 95%CI P-value
Sex      0.006
 Men 194 36.9 11.7 6.4;20.6  
 Women 363 63.1 18.2 13.5;24.0  
Skin Color      0.077
 White 468 85.1 14.1 9.9;19.7  
 Not white 89 14.9 25.5 16.6;37.0  
Season (Vit. D collection)      0.791
 Summer 55 9.1 14.4 6.7;28.0  
 Autumn 276 50.7 18.1 11.4;27.5  
 Winter 145 23.6 14.8 10.2;21.0  
 Spring 81 16.6 11.1 5.1;22.5  
Age range (years)      0.009*
 60–69 236 42.2 12.4 7.2;20.5  
 70–79 235 41.8 16.8 11.6;23.8  
 ≥ 80 86 16,0 22.2 14.3;32.9  
Education (years)      0.016
 No formal education 35 5.5 17.5 8.4;32.9  
 1–4 199 33.7 19.5 13.3;27.5  
 5–8 100 19.2 14.9 8.4;25.2  
 9–11 86 17.8 18.5 7.8;38.0  
 ≥ 12 137 23.8 8.9 4.3;17.7  
Per capita family income (n = 539)      0.002*
 ≤ 1 mw 40 6.4 22.4 11.8;38.6  
 > 1 and ≤ 3 mw 156 30.3 20.6 13.7;29.7  
 > 3 and ≤ 5 mw 108 17.5 19.3 11.1;31.3  
 > 5 and ≤ 10 mw 136 26.4 10.9 5.6;20.1  
 > 10 mw 99 19.4 9.9 4.8;19.2  
Retirement (n = 521)      0.152
 No 102 19.9 21.8 11.5;37.1  
 Yes 419 80.1 14.4 10.8;19.0  
Living arrangements      0.547
 Live with another/others 445 78.7 16.0 12.0;21.0  
 Live alone 112 21.3 15.2 8.3;26.1  
Marital Status      0.095
 Married 317 56.5 11.6 7.7;17.2  
 Single 33 6.1 20.9 7.0;48.3  
 Divorced 45 9.3 27.1 14.5;44.8  
 Widowed 162 28.1 19.4 13.4;17.3  
Social and religious groups attendance      0.114
 No 298 56.3 18.2 13.1;24.8  
 Yes 259 43.7 12.7 8.6;18.4  
Alcohol Consumption      < 0.001
 No 319 56.0 19.0 13.8;25.7  
 Yes 238 44.0 11.7 6.7;19.6  
Smoking      0.307
 No 351 58.6 17.0 12.2;23.3  
 Yes 206 41.4 14.1 10.1;19.3  
Leisure-time physical activity (n = 556)      < 0.001
 Insufficiently active 395 70.7 19.3 14.7;24.8  
 Sufficiently active 161 29.3 7.4 3.5;14.8  
Dependence in ADLs (n = 554)      < 0.001*
 None 202 38.1 6.4 3.2;12.4  
 Low 217 37.5 15.1 9.7;22.7  
 Moderate/severe 135 24.4 30.8 21.4;42.1  
Cognitive impairment (n = 554)      < 0.001
 Absent 442 79.6 10.9 7.3;15.9  
 Present 112 20.4 34.0 23.6;46.1  
Number of comorbidities      < 0.001
 Zero 34 6,0 13.5 2.8;46.2  
 1 96 18.6 1.4 0.3;5.7  
 ≥ 2 427 75.4 19.5 15.1;24.9  
Nutritional status  BMI (n = 554)      0.061
 Underweight 45 8.2 23.3 12.3;39.7  
 Healthy Weight 256 44.3 11.8 7.7;17.8  
 Overweight 253 47.5 18.0 12.6;25.1  
Antidepressant use (n = 529)      0.048
 No 449 85.4 15.4 11.2;20.7  
 Yes 80 14.6 21.4 12.4;34.4  
Vitamin D supplement use (n=521)      0.232
 No 464 90.6 16.6 12.1;22.2  
 Yes 57 9.4 11.5 4.8;25.1  
Serum 25(OH)D      0.006*
 Sufficiency 188 35.1 8.9 4.8;15.9  
 Insufficiency 226 39.4 17.2 11.0;25.9  
 Deficiency 143 25.5 23.2 15.6;32.9  
Depressive Symptoms      
 Absent 467 84.2   
 Present 90 15.8   
  1. mw minimum wage, ADLs activities of daily living, BMI Body Mass Index, CI confidence interval; P-value, statistical significance; * P-value of chi-square test for trend