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Table 4 Multivariable multilevel mixed effects logistic regression analysis factors associated with consumption of iron rich foods among children aged 623 months, 2016 EDHS, Ethiopia

From: Spatial distribution of iron rich foods consumption and its associated factors among children aged 6–23 months in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey

Variables Models
Null Model a Model II b Model III c Model IV d
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Mother’s age
  < 20 Years   1   1
 20–34 years   1.07 (0.72–1.58)   1.03 (0.69–1.53)
 35–49 Years   1.01 (0.60–1.70)   0.97 (0.57–1.63)
Child age
 6–11 months   1   1
 12–17 months   1.92 (1.46–2.52) ***   1.90 (1.45–2.49) ***
 18–23 months   2.14 (1.61–2.85) ***   2.05 (1.55–2.73) ***
Religion
 Orthodox   1   1
 Muslim   0.97 (0.67–1.42)   0.89 (0.57–1.39)
 Protestant   0.85 (0.62–1.17).)   0.94 (0.63–1.40)
 Others ¥   1.21 (0.58–2.51)   1.06 (0.50–2.24)
Mother education
 No education   1   1
 Primary education   1.59 (1.19–2.12) ***   1.42 (1.06–1.87) *
 Secondary and above   2.70 (1.77–4.12) ***   2.26 (1.47–3.46) ***
Father education
 No education     
 Primary education   1.15 (0.87–1.53)   0.99 (0.74–1.32)
 Secondary and above   1.36 (0.93–1.97)   1.13 (0.77–1.64)
Mother’s occupation
 Not working   1   1
 Working   1.21 (0.95–1.53)   1.18 (0.93–1.50)
Father occupation
 Not working   1   1
 Working   1.20 (0.79–1.81)   1.23 (0.81, −1.86)
Media exposure
 No media exposure   1   1
 Has media exposure   1.42 (1.08–1.88) *   1.30 (0.98–1.72)
Birth order
 1   1   1
 2–4   0.73 (0.53–1.01)   0.75 (0.54–1.03)
  > = 5   0.94 (0.53–1.67)   0.96 (0.54–1.69)
Family size
  < 5   1   1
  ≥ 5+   0.85 (0.50–1.43)   0.82 (0.48–1.37)
Wealth index
 Poor   1   1
 Middle   1.94 (1.38, − 2.71) ***   1.83 (1.31–2.57) ***
 Richer   1.73 (1.23–2.40) ***   1.49 (1.04–2.13) *
Residence
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    0.39 (0.28–0.54) 0.71 (0.46–1.10)
Region
 Addis Adaba 0.79 (0.44, 1.40) 0.66 (0.33, 1.32)    1 1
 Tigray    1.27 (0.71–2.27) 1.50 (0.76–2.98)
 Afar    0.15 (0.06–0.32) *** 0.24 (0.09–0.60) **
 Amhara    0.30 (0.15–0.60) *** 0.38 (0.17–0.84) *
 Oromia    1.25 (0.69–2.26) 1.47 (0.73–2.94)
 Somali    0.25 (0.14–0.51) 0.49 (0.22–1.07)
 Benishangul    0.89 (0.46–1.70) 1.09 (0.51–2.33)
 SNNPR    0.68 (0.37–1.25) 0.83 (0.41–1.71)
 Gambela    1.41 (0.76–2.60) 1.72 (0.81–3.66)
 Harari    1.76 (0.95–3.25) 2.11 (1.02–4.39) *
 Dire Dawa    0.71 (0.38–1.24) 0.90 (0.42–1.97)
Random effects
ICC% 0.27    
MOR (95%CI) 2.88 (1.91–4.34) 2.70 (1.79–4.08) 2.08 (1.59–2.73) 2.38 (1.66–3.41)
PCV% 0 12% 52% 33%
Model compression
Log likelihood ratio − 1458.724 − 1256.25 − 1372.049 −1223.363
  1. NB: * = Significant at P-value 0.05, ** = Significant at P-value 0.01, *** = Significant at P-value 0.001, CI Confidence Interval, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, ICC Intraclass Correlation, MOR Median Odds Ratio, PCV Percentage Change Variation, ¥ = Catholic, Traditional, and other
  2. a = Adjusted for individual and community level variable, b = Adjusted for community-level variable, c = Adjusted for individual-level variable, d = Full model