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Table 2 The relation between semen quality indicators in 400 infertile men and intake of different meat types

From: The association between animal flesh foods consumption and semen parameters among infertile Iranian men: a cross-sectional study

Meat intake (servings/day) Semen volume (ML) Total sperm count (million) Progressive motility
(% motile)
Sperm morphology
(% normal)
Sperm immotile
(% immotile)
Total meat
 Quartile 1 3.35 (3.0–3.7) 37.5 (30–44) 28.8 (26–31) 2.4 (2.2–2.7) 49.3 (45–53)
 Quartile 2 3.4 (3.1–3.7) 40.6 (34–47) 32.5 (29–35) 2.6 (2.4–2.9) 51.8 (48–55)
 Quartile 3 3.7 (3.3–4.0) 41.3 (35–48) 30.9 (28–33) 2.5 (2.2–2.7) 50.1 (46–53)
 Quartile 4 3.8 (3.4–4.1) 43.8 (37–50) 31.7 (29–34) 2.6 (2.4–2.9) 52.8 (49–56)
P-value 0.173 0.615 0.302 0.636 0.528
Processed red meata
 Quartile 1 3.7 (3.3–4.1) 43.3 (36–50) 31.2 (28–34) 2.5 (2.2–2.7) 48.3 (44–52)
 Quartile 2 3.2 (2.7–3.6) 37.7 (29–44) 28.7 (25–31) 2.5 (2.2–2.8) 49.5 (45–53)
 Quartile 3 3.7 (3.3–4.1) 41.4 (34–49) 31.4 (28–34) 2.5 (2.3–2.8) 54.9 (50–58)
 Quartile 4 3.6 (3.2–4.1) 39.8 (32–46) 32.1 (29–35) 2.6 (2.3–2.9) 51.8 (47–55)
P-value 0.195 0.623 0.282 0.856 0.132
Red meatb
 Quartile 1 3.6 (3.3–4.1) 41.6 (34–47) 30.2 (27–33) 2.5 (2.3–2.8) 49.4 (45–53)
 Quartile 2 3.5 (3.1–3.8) 42.3 (35–48) 30.4 (27–33) 2.6 (2.3–2.9) 53.6 (49–56)
 Quartile 3 3.2 (2.9–3.6) 37.4 (30–44) 30.7 (27–33) 2.5 (2.2–2.8) 51.4 (48–55)
 Quartile 4 3.7 (3.4–4.1) 42.5 (36–49) 32.4 (29–35) 2.5 (2.2–2.8) 49.8 (45–53)
P-value 0.202 0.697 0.729 0.958 0.476
Poultryc
 Quartile 1 3.9 (3.4–4.3) 41.5 (33–50) 30.8 (27–34) 2.5 (2.1–2.8) 50.1 (45–54)
 Quartile 2 3.2 (2.8–3.6) 35.1 (27–42) 29.8 (26–33) 2.5 (2.2–2.9) 49.5 (45–53)
 Quartile 3 3.4 (3.1–3.8) 41.8 (35–47) 31.1 (28–33) 2.5 (2.3–2.8) 51.1 (47–54)
 Quartile 4 3.7 (3.2–4.2) 45.6 (35–55) 32.8 (28–37) 2.6 (2.2–3.1) 53.7 (48–59)
 P-value 0.197 0.353 0.741 0.944 0.655
Fresh fish
 Quartile 1 3.5 (3.1–3.9) 39.2 (31–46) 31.1 (27–34) 2.3 (2.0–2.6) 51.9 (48–55)
 Quartile 2 3.5 (3.1–3.8) 42.4 (35–48) 30.9 (28–33) 2.5 (2.2–2.8) 45.3 (39–50)
 Quartile 3 3.5 (3.2–3.9) 40.1 (33–47) 30.6 (27–33) 2.7 (2.4–3.0) 53.8 (50–57)
 Quartile 4 3.6 (3.2–4.1) 41.7 (33–49) 31.7 (28–35) 2.7 (2.4–3.0) 49.8 (45–54)
P-value 0.955 0.930 0.969 0.341 0.074
Organ meatd
 Quartile 1 3.8 (3.4–4.1) 42.7 (36–49) 32.1 (29–34) 2.6 (2.3–2.9) 51.7 (47–56)
 Quartile 2 3.3 (2.8–3.8) 35.5 (26–45) 27.7 (23–31) 2.3 (1.9–2.7) 49.3 (45–53)
 Quartile 3 3.3 (3.0–3.7) 39.5 (32–46) 31.1 (28–33) 2.6 (2.3–2.8) 50.7 (46–54)
 Quartile 4 3.5 (3.1–3.9) 42.8 (35–50) 31.4 (28–34) 2.6 (2.2–2.9) 52.5 (48–56)
 P-value 0.251 0.603 0.371 0.648 0.713
Canned fish
 Quartile 1 3.4 (2.9–3.9) 41.6 (32–51) 33.6 (29–37) 2.7 (2.3–3.1) 52.5 (47–57)
 Quartile 2 3.4 (2.9–3.9) 35.7 (26–45) 28.3 (24–32) 2.2 (1.8–2.6) 53.1 (49–46)
 Quartile 3 3.6 (3.3–4.0) 38.6 (31–46) 29.1 (25–32) 2.5 (2.1–2.8) 49.7 (44–54)
 Quartile 4 3.5 (3.2–3.8) 43.7 (37–49) 32.3 (29–34) 2.7 (2.4–2.9) 47.4 (43–51)
P-value 0.824 0.587 0.120 0.247 0.026
  1. aProcessed red meat included sausages and bologna
  2. bRed meat included hamburger, beef and lamb meat as a mixed or main dish
  3. cPoultry included chicken with or without skin, as a main dish, sandwich, or frozen dinner
  4. dOrgan meat included liver and chicken liver