Skip to main content

Table 4 Association between dietary flavonoids intake and cancer mortality

From: Habitual dietary intake of flavonoids and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Golestan cohort study

Flavonoids Quintile of intake p for trend
1 2 3 4 5
Total flavonoids
cancer
  No. of deaths 186 223 235 243 265  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.22 (1.00–1.48) 1.27 (1.05–1.54) 1.27 (1.05–1.54) 1.43 (1.19–1.73) < 0.001
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.18 (0.97–1.44) 1.17 (0.96–1.42) 1.13 (0.93–1.38) 1.19 (0.97–1.44) 0.19
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.03 (0.79–1.35) 1.07 (0.82–1.38) 1.11 (0.85–1.44) 1.04 (0.80–1.35) 0.64
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.36 (1.01–1.82) 1.19 (0.89–1.60) 1.08 (0.80–1.46) 1.23 (0.91–1.65) 0.62
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.08 (0.85–1.35) 1.12 (0.90–1.38) 1.11 (0.89–1.37) 1.13 (0.91–1.40) 0.28
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.66 (1.07–3.79) 1.41 (0.88–2.23) 1.14 (0.70–1.97) 1.28 (0.78–2.11) 0.86
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 108 123 123 145 143  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.17 (0.90–1.52) 1.16 (0.90–1.51) 1.32 (1.02–1.69) 1.35 (1.05–1.73) 0.01
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.12 (0.86–1.45) 1.02 (0.78–1.32) 1.11 (0.86–1.44) 1.04 (0.80–1.35) 0.80
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.85 (0.59–1.24) 0.97 (0.68–1.38) 1.04 (0.73–1.48) 0.80 (0.55–1.15) 0.53
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.41 (0.98–2.04) 0.96 (0.65–1.42) 1.09 (0.75–1.59) 1.20 (0.82–1.74) 0.81
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.00 (0.85–1.35) 0.97 (0.73–1.28) 1.06 (0.81–1.40) 0.99 (0.74–1.31) 0.89
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 2.01 (1.06–3.79) 1.36 (0.68–2.71) 1.35 (0.67–2.70) 1.26 (0.61–2.60) 0.98
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 78 100 112 98 122  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.28 (0.95–1.73) 1.42 (1.07–1.90) 1.21 (0.90–1.63) 1.55 (1.17–2.07) 0.01
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.27 (0.99–1.71) 1.38 (1.03–1.85) 1.14 (0.84–1.55) 1.39 (1.53–1.88) 0.10
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.25 (0.85–1.83) 1.78 (0.80–1.73) 1.17 (0.79–1.73) 1.36 (0.93–2.00) 0.20
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.27 (0.78–2.05) 1.58 (1.00–2.49) 1.05 (0.63–1.71) 1.27 (0.78–2.06) 0.63
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.22 (0.87–1.72) 1.35 (0.97–1.88) 1.17 (0.83–1.64) 1.36 (0.97–1.90) 0.14
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.40 (0.75–2.59) 1.44 (0.77–2.69) 0.96 (0.48–1.93) 1.32 (0.67–2.61) 0.80
Flavonols
Cancer
  No. of deaths 186 226 223 253 265  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.23 (1.01–1.49) 1.99 (0.98–1.45) 1.31 (1.08–1.58) 1.42 (1.18–1.71) < 0.001
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.21 (0.99–1.47) 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 1.17 (0.96–1.42) 1.19 (0.97–1.45) 0.18
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97 (0.74–1.26) 0.98 (0.76–1.28) 1.12 (0.87–1.44) 0.96 (0.74–1.26) 0.80
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.54 (1.15–2.07) 1.21 (0.89–1.64) 1.15 (0.85–1.55) 1.35 (1.00–1.83) 0.42
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.15 (0.75–1.34) 1.04 (0.83–1.29) 1.17 (0.94–1.45) 1.15 (0.93–1.43) 0.22
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.46 (0.93–2.27) 1.48 (0.94–2.31) 1.04 (0.63–1.71) 1.16 (0.70–1.91) 0.94
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 109 120 120 151 143  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.12 (0.87–1.46) 1.11 (0.86–1.44) 1.34 (1.05–1.71) 1.32 (1.03–1.70) 0.009
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.10 (0.76–1.29) 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 1.14 (0.88–1.47) 1.03 (0.79–1.35) 0.71
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.77 (0.53–1.11) 0.88 (0.60–1.23) 1.10 (0.79–1.54) 0.69 (0.48–1.00) 0.42
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.54 (1.06) 1.10 (0.74–1.63) 1.07 (0.74–1.58) 1.38 (0.94–2.02) 0.53
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.00 (0.75–1.34) 0.92 (0.69–1.23) 1.13 (0.86–1.49) 1.01 (0.76–1.34) 0.61
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.74 (0.93–3.27) 1.51 (0.79–2.89) 1.06 (0.52–2.16) 1.04 (0.50–2.15) 0.58
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 77 106 103 102 122  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.37 (1.02–1.84) 1.31 (0.98–1.77) 1.26 (0.94–1.70) 1.56 (1.17–2.08) 0.01
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.37 (1.01–1.84) 1.28 (0.95–1.72) 1.20 (0.88–1.62) 1.40 (1.04–1.90) 0.13
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.23 (0.84–1.80) 1.15 (0.78–1.68) 1.11 (0.75–1.64) 1.35 (0.92–1.97) 0.25
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.56 (0.97–2.51) 1.40 (0.86–2.27) 1.27 (0.78–2.07) 1.31 (0.80–2.16) 0.63
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.39 (0.99–1.95) 1.23 (0.87–1.73) 1.22 (0.86–1.71) 1.38 (0.98–1.94) 0.21
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.23 (0.65–2.30) 1.43 (0.77–2.66) 1.03 (0.51–2.05) 1.30 (0.65–2.59) 0.64
Flavan-3-ol monomers
Cancer
  No. of deaths 186 218 234 246 269  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.17 (0.96–1.42) 1.27 (1.05–1.54) 1.26 (1.04–1.52) 1.44 (1.19–1.73) < 0.001
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.40 (0.93–1.39) 1.16 (0.95–1.41) 1.12 (0.92–1.36) 1.19 (0.98–1.44) 0.14
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.01 (0.77–1.320 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 1.07 (0.82–1.38) 1.04 (0.80–1.35) 0.66
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.30 (0.97–1.75) 1.15 (0.85–1.55) 1.12 (0.83–1.50) 1.23 (0.92–1.66) 0.45
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.02 (0.82–1.28) 1.08 (0.87–1.33) 1.09 (0.88–1.34) 1.11 (0.90–1.38) 0.25
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.73 (1.11–2.71) 1.58 (0.99–2.51) 1.18 (0.71–1.94) 1.40 (0.85–2.30) 0.67
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 108 115 127 148 145  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.07 (0.82–1.39) 1.21 (0.83–1.56) 1.31 (1.02–1.68) 1.35 (1.05–1.73) 0.004
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.03 (0.79–1.34) 1.04 (0.80–1.35) 1.11 (0.86–1.43) 1.03 (0.80–1.34) 0.62
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.78 (0.53–1.14) 0.99 (0.70–1.40) 1.02 (0.72–1.44) 0.79 (0.55–1.14) 0.61
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.34 (0.92–1.95) 0.98 (0.67–1.45) 1.13 (0.78–1.64) 0.63 (0.83–1.75) 0.63
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.91 (0.68–1.21) 0.95 (0.72–1.26) 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.79
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.98 (1.03–3.80) 1.67 (0.84–3.30) 1.41 (0.69–2.87) 1.42 (0.69–2.94) 0.73
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 78 103 107 98 124  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.31 (0.97–1.75) 1.36 (1.02–1.83) 1.19 (0.88–1.60) 1.57 (1.18–2.08) 0.01
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.29 (0.96–1.74) 1.32 (0.96–1.74) 1.12 (0.83–1.52) 1.40 (1.04–1.89) 0.11
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.30 (0.88–1.90) 1.18 (0.80–1.73) 1.10 (0.75–1.64) 1.37 (0.94–2.01) 0.27
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.29 (0.78–2.02) 1.43 (0.90–2.27) 1.09 (0.68–1.77) 1.28 (0.79–2.07) 0.55
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.21 (0.86–1.70) 1.27 (0.91–1.77) 1.13 (0.81–2.59) 1.35 (0.97–1.89) 0.15
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.55 (0.84–2.87) 1.50 (0.79–2.82) 0.97 (0.47–1.99) 1.39 (0.70–2.77) 0.80
Flavanones
Cancer
  No. of deaths 287 238 231 196 200  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.88 (0.74–1.00) 0.89 (0.74–1.06) 0.77 (0.64–0.92) 0.80 (0.66–0.95) 0.004
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.78 (0.65–0.94) 0.85 (0.70–1.03) 0.04
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.81 (0.64–1.04) 0.90 (0.71–1.14) 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.89 (0.69–1.16) 0.54
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.93 (0.73–1.20) 0.88 (0.68–1.15) 0.74 (0.55–0.99) 0.85 (0.63–1.14) 0.09
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.92 (0.76–1.10) 0.91 (0.75–1.10) 0.79 (0.64–0.98) 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.09
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.55 (0.34–0.88) 0.64 (0.42–1.00) 0.58 (0.38–0.91) 0.55 (0.35–0.86) 0.02
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 154 148 132 109 99  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.04 (0.83–1.30) 0.96 (0.76–1.22) 0.81 (0.64–1.04) 0.75 (0.58–0.97) 0.007
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.02 (0.81–1.28) 0.96 (0.76–1.22) 0.84 (0.65–1.08) 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 0.09
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.83 (0.59–1.18) 1.08 (0.78–1.50) 0.88 (0.62–1.26) 0.96 (0.66–1.39) 0.23
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.22 (0.90–1.66) 0.85 (0.60–1.21) 0.84 (0.58–1.22) 0.72 (0.51–1.13) 0.04
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.05 (0.83–1.34) 0.91 (0.70–1.17) 0.79 (0.59–1.04) 0.80 (0.60–1.08) 0.02
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.61 (0.28–1.33) 1.07 (0.56–2.04) 0.88 (0.46–1.71) 0.80 (0.40–1.60) 0.86
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 133 90 99 87 101  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.71 (0.54–0.93) 0.80 (0.62–1.04) 0.72 (0.55–0.95) 0.84 (0.65–1.09) 0.22
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.70 (0.53–0.91) 0.79 (0.61–1.04) 0.72 (0.55–0.96) 0.83 (0.63–1.11) 0.24
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.79 (0.56–1.12) 0.73 (0.51–1.04) 0.84 (0.59–1.19) 0.82 (0.56–1.19) 0.38
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.54 (0.34–0.85) 0.92 (0.62–1.38) 0.60 (0.38–0.97) 0.96 (0.62–1.48) 0.84
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.73 (0.54–0.99) 0.91 (0.68–1.22) 0.81 (0.59–1.11) 0.97 (0.71–1.33) 0.97
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.51 (0.28–0.93) 0.39 (0.21–0.74) 0.41 (0.22–0.76) 0.41 (0.22–0.76) 0.004
Flavones
Cancer
  No. of deaths 285 225 225 199 219  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.84 (0.71–1.00) 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.77 (0.65–0.93) 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 0.06
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.82 (0.69–0.98) 0.84 (0.70–1.01) 0.74 (0.61–0.90) 0.85 (0.70–1.04) 0.05
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.86 (0.67–1.09) 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.73 (0.56–0.94) 0.81 (0.62–1.06) 0.06
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.76 (0.58–0.99) 0.87 (0.67–1.14) 0.76 (0.57–1.02) 0.95 (0.71–1.27) 0.66
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.83 (0.69–1.01) 0.90 (0.74–1.10) 0.71 (0.57–0.88) 0.90 (0.72–1.12) 0.13
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.74 (0.47–1.16) 0.54 (0.33–0.87) 0.76 (0.49–1.18) 0.58 (0.36–0.93) 0.06
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 159 130 125 116 113  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.89 (0.70–1.12) 0.90 (0.71–1.14) 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.82 (0.64(−1.05) 0.09
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 0.85 (0.66–1.08) 0.79 (0.61–1.02) 0.84 (0.64–1.10) 0.15
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.94 (0.67–1.31) 0.78 (0.55–1.11) 0.73 (0.51–1.06) 0.79 (0.54–1.16) 0.09
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.76 (0.54–1.08) 0.92 (0.65–1.29) 0.85 (0.59–1.22) 0.90 (0.61–1.32) 0.73
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.85 (0.66–1.09) 0.90 (0.69–1.16) 0.76 (0.57–1.01) 0.86 (0.64–1.16) 0.21
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.91 (0.48–1.71) 0.56 (0.28–1.14) 0.81 (0.43–1.53) 0.59 (0.30–1.17) 0.14
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 126 95 100 83 106  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.79 (0.60–1.03) 0.86 (0.66–1.12) 0.70 (0.53–0.93) 0.91 (0.70–1.19) 0.33
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.77 (0.59–1.02) 0.83 (0.63–1.09) 0.68 (0.50–0.91) 0.86 (0.64–1.16) 0.21
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.78 (0.54–1.11) 0.84 (0.59–1.19) 0.71 (0.49–1.04) 0.82 (0.56–1.21) 0.30
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.75 (0.49–1.15) 0.80 (0.52–1.25) 0.63 (0.39–1.03) 1.02 (0.65–1.60) 0.77
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.82 (0.61–1.11) 0.92 (0.68–1.24) 0.64 (0.46–0.90) 0.95 (0.68–1.31) 0.38
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.59 (0.31–1.13) 0.52 (0.26–1.00) 0.73 (0.40–1.33) 0.57 (0.30–1.11) 0.24
Isoflavnoids
Cancer
  No. of deaths 287 272 208 196 190  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.79 (0.66–0.94) 0.78 (0.65–0.93) 0.77 (0.64–0.93) < 0.001
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.77 (0.64–0.93) 0.79 (0.66–0.96) 0.82 (0.68–0.98) 0.006
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97 (0.77–1.22) 0.72 (0.56–0.92) 0.76 (0.59–0.97) 0.73 (0.56–0.94) 0.002
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.93 (0.72–1.19) 0.83 (0.63–1.08) 0.81 (0.61–1.08) 0.90 (0.67–1.19) 0.22
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.99 (0.83–1.19) 0.81 (0.66–0.99) 0.81 (0.66–1.00) 0.85 (0.65–1.05) 0.02
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.72 (0.47–1.10) 0.55 (0.35–0.86) 0.60 (0.39–0.94) 0.60 (0.38–0.95) 0.02
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 159 162 126 103 93  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.08 (0.87–1.34) 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 0.76 (0.59–0.97) 0.70 (0.54–0.91) < 0.001
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.03 (0.83–1.29) 0.87 (0.69–1.11) 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.80 (0.61–1.04) 0.02
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.03 (0.76–1.40) 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.74 (0.52–1.05) 0.64 (0.44–0.93) 0.003
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.02 (0.74–1.04) 1.01 (0.72–1.41) 0.84 (0.58–1.22) 0.96 (0.66–1.39) 0.53
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 0.92 (0.71–1.19) 0.84 (0.63–1.11) 0.86 (0.65–1.15) 0.10
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.74 (0.41–1.32) 0.55 (0.30–1.02) 0.54 (0.29–1.01) 0.46 (0.23–0.92) 0.01
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 128 110 82 93 97  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.88 (0.68–1.14) 0.68 (0.51–0.89) 0.80 (0.61–1.04) 0.86 (0.66–1.12) 0.15
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.87 (0.67–1.12) 0.66 (0.49–0.88) 0.58 (0.58–1.01) 0.63 (0.63–1.10) 0.10
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.90 (0.64–1.27) 0.71 (0.49–1.03) 0.77 (0.54–1.11) 0.81 (0.57–1.16) 0.17
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.81 (0.54–1.21) 0.58 (0.37–0.91) 0.77 (0.49–1.19) 0.81 (0.52–1.25) 0.24
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89 (0.67–1.19) 0.68 (0.49–0.93) 0.77 (0.56–1.05) 0.84 (0.61–1.13) 0.12
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.70 (0.37–1.30) 0.55 (0.29–1.06) 0.68 (0.37–1.26) 0.76 (0.40–1.42) 0.42
Anthocianidins
Cancer
  No. of deaths 202 210 237 247 257  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.07 (0.88–1.30) 1.20 (0.99–1.45) 1.22 (1.01–1.47) 1.31 (1.09–1.58) 0.001
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.05 (0.86–1.27) 1.13 (0.93–1.36) 1.09 (0.90–1.32) 1.12 (0.92–1.36) 0.23
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 1.03 (0.80–1.33) 1.01 (0.78–1.30) 1.00 (0.77–1.30) 0.64
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.20 (0.90–1.60) 1.15 (0.87–1.54) 1.09 (0.81–1.45) 1.11 (0.83–1.50) 0.73
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 1.09 (0.88–1.35) 1.09 (0.88–1.35) 1.10 (0.89–1.21) 0.27
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.00 (0.62–1.62) 1.17 (0.74–1.87) 1.26 (0.80–1.99) 0.99 (0.62–1.60) 0.77
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 121 111 127 151 133  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.96 (0.74–1.24) 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 1.26 (0.99–1.61) 1.15 (0.90–1.47) 0.04
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 0.99 (0.77–1.28) 1.06 (0.83–1.36) 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 0.99
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.76 (0.53–1.10) 0.96 (0.68–1.36) 0.94 (0.67–1.33) 0.73 (0.50–1.05) 0.31
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.08 (0.75–1.55) 0.93 (0.64–1.35) 1.08 (0.76–1.55) 1.04 (0.72–1.51) 0.80
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 1.04 (0.80–1.36) 0.92 (0.69–1.21) 0.99
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.69 (0.58–2.34) 1.51 (0.77–2.94) 1.35 (0.69–2.65) 1.37 (0.70–2.66) 0.63
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 81 99 110 96 124  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.24 (0.92–1.66) 1.36 (1.02–1.82) 1.17 (0.87–1.57) 1.55 (1.17–2.05) 0.09
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.23 (0.21–1.65) 1.32 (0.99–1.77) 1.11 (0.82–1.50) 1.41 (1.05–1.89) 0.08
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.05 (0.71–1.54) 1.11 (0.76–1.62) 1.07 (0.73–1.57) 1.38 (0.95–2.00) 0.10
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.45 (0.91–2.32) 1.58 (1.00–2.50) 1.08 (0.66–1.76) 1.25 (0.77–2.05) 0.82
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.26 (0.90–1.77) 1.31 (0.94–1.83) 1.17 (0.83–1.42) 1.42 (1.02–1.99) 0.10
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.07 (0.58–1.99) 1.35 (0.74–2.46) 0.81 (0.40–1.63) 1.15 (0.59–2.23) 0.94
Dihydrochalcones
Cancer
  No. of deaths 506 220 228 199  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.68 (0.53–0.89) 0.96 (0.77–1.21) 0.83 (0.65–1.05) 0.24
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.88 (0.75–1.03) 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.84 (0.71–0.99) 0.03
Age
   < 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.78 (0.62–0.97) 0.99 (0.80–1.21) 0.80 (0.64–1.01) 0.95
   > 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.94 (0.74–1.21) 0.31
BMI
   < 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.71–1.00) 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 0.84 (0.69–1.01) 0.04
   > 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.04 (0.70–1.53) 0.97 (0.66–1.42) 0.75 (0.51–1.12) 0.20
GI cancer
  No. of deaths 278 143 117 105  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.89 (0.76–1.05) 0.79 (0.67–0.93) 0.006
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.05 (0.86–1.29) 0.84 (0.67–1.04) 0.85 (0.67–1.07) 0.07
Age
   < 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.91 (0.68–1.21) 0.82 (0.60–1.10) 0.84 (0.61–1.16) 0.17
   > 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.20 (0.90–1.60) 0.90 (0.65–1.23) 0.88 (0.63–1.23) 0.26
BMI
   < 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.04 (0.83–1.29) 0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0.85 (0.66–1.09) 0.07
   > 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.08 (0.62–1.87) 1.09 (0.64–1.85) 0.73 (0.41–1.29) 0.40
Other cancer
  No. of deaths 228 77 111 94  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.05 (0.86–1.29) 0.84 (0.67–1.04) 0.76 (0.61–0.95) 0.009
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.67 (0.52–0.87) 0.96 (0.76–1.20) 0.83 (0.65–1.07) 0.26
Age
   < 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.63 (0.45–0.89) 1.18 (0.89–1.56) 0.77 (0.55–1.08) 0.58
   > 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.75 (0.50–1.12) 0.68 (0.45–1.03) 1.03 (0.71–1.49) 0.63
BMI
<30      
HR (95% CI) b 1 0.60 (0.44–0.81) 0.98 (0.76–1.26) 0.83 (0.63–1.09) 0.35
>30      
HR (95% CI) b 1 1.01 (0.59–1.73) 0.85 (0.49–1.48) 0.80 (0.46–1.38) 0.37