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Table 2 Association between dietary flavonoids intake and all-cause mortality

From: Habitual dietary intake of flavonoids and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Golestan cohort study

Flavonoids Quintile of Intake p for trend
1 2 3 4 5
Total Flavonoid
 Mean intake (mg/d) 212.19 431.24 589.64 758.54 1214.75  
 No. of deaths/person-year 979/87,933 939/92,285 976/93,291 1053/93,331 1156/91,508  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 1.04 (0.96–1.14) 1.19 (1.09–1.29) < 0.001
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97 (0.89–1.07) 0.97 (0.89–1.06) 1.00 (0.91–1.09) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 0.07
Flavonols
 Mean intake (mg/d) 29.63 53.51 70.26 89.08 137.21  
 No. of deaths/person-year 990/87,718 937/92,170 950/93,921 1078/92,928 1149/91,657  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.96 (0.88–1.00) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 1.04 (0.95–1.13) 1.15 (1.06–1.26) < 0.001
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.87–1.04) 0.94 (0.91–1.09) 1.00 (0.90–1.07) 1.06 (0.99–1.18) 0.09
Flavan-3-ol monomers
 Mean intake (mg/d) 160.18 347.89 486.03 627.77 1021.65  
 No. of deaths/person-year 972/87,919 920/92,249 993/93,239 1054/93,522 1165/91,453  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.95 (0.87–1.00) 1.04 (0.95–1.13) 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 1.19 (1.09–1.30) < 0.001
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 0.99 (0.91–1.09) 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 1.08 (0.99–1.18) 0.05
Flavanones
 Mean intake (mg/d) 0.84 3.13 5.85 10.00 27.79  
 No. of deaths/person-year 1305/90,182 1061/92,107 955/92,838 919/90,834 863/92,511  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.82 (0.75–0.89) 0.80 (0.73–0.87) 0.73 (0.67–0.80) < 0.001
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.83 (0.77–0.91) 0.84 (0.77–0.92) 0.81 (0.73–0.89) < 0.001
Flavones
 Mean intake (mg/d) 1.55 2.75 3.78 5.18 9.94  
 No. of deaths/person-year 1272/87,823 1039/92,062 973/93,032 932/93,820 888/91,717  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.88 (0.82–0.96) 0.87 (0.80–0.94) 0.82 (0.76–0.89) 0.77 (0.70–0.84) < 0.001
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.90 (0.82–0.98) 0.85 (0.78–0.94) 0.83 (0.76–0.92) < 0.001
Isoflavnoids
 Mean intake (mg/d) 0.007 0.024 0.053 0.21 1.68  
 No. of deaths/person-year 1255/89,134 1114/92,971 1011/93,204 876/92,648 848/90,486  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.88 (0.82–0.95) 0.80 (0.73–0.87) 0.81 (0.75–0.89) < 0.001
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.94 (0.87–1.04) 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.85 (0.78–0.93) 0.88 (0.80–0.96) < 0.001
Anthocianidins
 Mean intake (mg/d) 7.72 15.05 20.20 26.11 41.45  
 No. of deaths/person-year 1049/87,580 929/92,598 980/93,136 1031/93,326 1124/91,781  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 1.11 (1.02–1.20) 0.003
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.93 (0.83–0.99) 0.94 (0.86–1.03) 0.94 (0.86–1.03) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 0.34
Dihydrochalcones   ?     
 Mean intake (mg/d) 0.017   0.19 0.46 1.66  
 No. of deaths/person-year 2204/184,266   1026/90,601 1014/93,067 860/90,570  
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1   0.97 (0.91–1.04) 0.92 (0.80–0.99) 0.78 (0.72–0.84) < 0.001
 Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1   0.97 (0.90–1.04) 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 0.83 (0.77–0.90) < 0.001
  1. aAge-adjusted model was adjusted for age (years)
  2. b Multivariate-adjusted model was adjusted for gender; age (years); ethnicity (Turkmen, others); education (illiterate, ≤5 years, 6–8 years, high school, academic); marital status (married, not married); smoking (user, non-user); opium use (user, non-user); alcohol (user, non-user); BMI (continuous); hypertension (yes, no); occupational physical activity (sedentary, moderate activity, high activity), energy intake (continuous)