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Table 1 Characteristics of participants according to quintile of total flavonoid intake

From: Habitual dietary intake of flavonoids and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Golestan cohort study

  Total Flavonoid Intake Range
All Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
n (%) 42,605 8317 (19.5) 8654 (20.3) 8692 (20.4) 8611 (20.2) 8331 (19.6)
Gender
 Women [n (%)] 24,262 (56.9) 5724 (68.8) 5417 (62.6) 4982 (57.3) 4486 (52.1) 3653 (43.8)
 Men [n (%)] 18,343 (43.1) 2593 (31.2) 3237 (37.4) 3710 (42.7) 4125 (47.9) 4678 (56.2)
 Age (y) [Mean ± SD]a 51.55 (8.78) 52.15 (9.19) 51.30 (8.76) 51.23 (8.62) 51.37 (8.60) 51.75 (8.70)
Mortality No (%)
 Total 5104 (12) 1066 (12.8) 971 (11.2) 995 (11.4) 962 (11.2) 1110 (13.3)
 Cardiovascular 1831 (4.3) 408 (4.9) 325 (3.8) 357 (4.1) 357 (4.1) 384 (4.6)
 Cancer 1153 (2.7) 213 (2.6) 231 (2.7) 229 (2.6) 216 (2.5) 264 (3.2)
 Other cause 2120 (5) 445 (5.4) 415 (4.8) 409 (4.7) 389 (4.5) 462 (5.5)
BMI (Kg/m2) [Mean ± SD]a 26.45 (5.40) 26.72 (5.58) 26.58 (5.40) 26.48 (5.36) 26.32 (5.30) 26.14 (5.35)
Waist- to – Hip [Mean ± SD]a 0.94 (0.08) 0.94 (0.08) 0.94 (0.08) 0.94 (0.08) 0.94 (0.07) 0.94 (0.07)
Energy (kcal) [Mean ± SD]a 2169.08 (570.22) 1758.99 (438.61) 2007.29 (449.14) 2169.49 (466.56) 2334.77 (504.15) 2574.85 (584.81)
Smoke ever used [n (%)]a
 No smoker 35,230 (82.7) 7389 (88.8) 7454 (86.1) 7312 (84.1) 6972 (81) 6103 (73.3)
 Smoker 7375 (17.3) 928 (11.2) 1200 (13.9) 1380 (15.9) 1639 (19) 2228 (26.7)
Alcohol ever used [n (%)]a
No 41,185 (96.7) 8150 (98) 8435 (97.5) 8432 (97) 8312 (96.5) 7856 (94.3)
Yes 1420 (3.3) 167 (2) 219 (2.5) 260 (3) 229 (3.5) 475 (5.7)
Opiate ever use [n (%)]a
 No 35,523 (83.4) 7345 (88.3) 7513 (86.8) 7386 (85) 7056 (81.9) 6223 (74.7)
 Yes 7082 (16.6) 972 (11.7) 1141 (13.2) 1306 (15) 1555 (18.1) 2108 (25.3)
History of Hypertension [n (%)]a
 No 35,751 (83.9) 6613 (79.5) 7212 (83.3) 7360 (84.7) 7389 (85.8) 7177 (86.1)
 Yes 6854 (16.1) 1704 (20.5) 1442 (16.7) 1332 (15.3) 1222 (14.2) 1154 (13.9)
Education [n (%)]a
 Illiterate 29,561 (69.4) 6333 (76.1) 6186 (71.5) 6005 (69.1) 5842 (67.8) 5195 (62.4)
  < 5 year 7392 (17.4) 1200 (14.4) 1401 (16.2) 1578 (18.2) 1537 (17.8) 1676 (20.1)
 6–8 year 1916 (4.5) 278 (3.3) 340 (3.9) 363 (4.2) 424 (4.9) 511 (6.1)
 High school 2792 (6.6) 391 (4.7) 523 (6) 566 (6.5) 585 (6.8) 727 (8.7)
 Academic 944 (2.2) 115 (1.4) 204 (2.4) 180 (2.1) 223 (2.6) 222 (2.7)
Ethnicitya
 Torkaman 32,033 (75.2) 6619 (79.6) 6627 (76.6) 6525 (75.1) 6368 (74) 5894 (70.7)
 Non torkaman 10,572 (24.8) 1698 (20.4) 2072 (23.4) 2167 (24.9) 2243 (26) 2437 (29.3)
Marital statusa
 Married 37,677 (88.6) 7085 (85.4) 7608 (88) 7753 (89.4) 7746 (90.1) 7485 (90)
 Not married 4854 (11.4) 1216 (14.6) 1033 (12) 921 (10.6) 854 (9.9) 830 (10)
Physical activitya
 Sedentary 14,424 (33.9) 2764 (32.6) 2814 (32.8) 2871 (33.4) 3133 (37.7) 3716 (38.9)
 Moderate 13,370 (31.5) 2716 (32.8) 2789 (32.1) 2641 (30.8) 2391 (28.8) 2770 (29)
 High 14,709 (34.6) 2816 (34.6) 3045 (35.1) 3075 (35.8) 2782 (33.5) 3063 (32.1)
  1. aAll comparisons between subclasses of flavonoid quintiles and tests for trend were statistically significant at P < 0.001 (chi-squared for categorical variables or Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test for continuous variables)