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Table 1 Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of controls and MetS

From: Association of plasma chromium with metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults: a case-control study

Parameters MetS (n = 2141) controls (n = 2141) P value
Male, n (%) 1293 (60.4) 1293 (60.4) 1.000
Age (y) 52.57 ± 10.80 52.70 ± 10.73 0.750
BMI (kg/m2) a 25.82 ± 3.10 22.66 ± 2.62 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 89.46 ± 8.67 79.98 ± 7.90 < 0.001
Hip circumference (cm) 98.49 ± 6.32 92.78 ± 6.04 < 0.001
Waist / hip ratio 0.91 ± 0.05 0.86 ± 0.06 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 140.14 ± 20.36 128.80 ± 19.11 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 84.19 ± 12.06 77.12 ± 10.42 < 0.001
Current smoker, n (%) b 617 (28.8) 700 (32.7) 0.006
Current drinker, n (%) c 604 (28.4) 621 (29.2) 0.578
Physical activity, n (%) d 746 (38.1) 884 (42.2) 0.006
Family history of diabetes, n (%) e 309 (14.6) 158 (7.5) < 0.001
Educational level, n (%) f    0.308
 None or elementary school 402 (20.6) 426 (20.3)  
 Middle school 791 (40.6) 901 (42.9)  
 High school or college 754 (38.7) 772 (36.8)  
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 7.12 ± 2.57 5.66 ± 1.33 < 0.001
Fasting plasma insulin (mmol/L) 10.66 (7.58–15.40) 6.87 (4.79–9.95) < 0.001
HOMA-IR 3.34 (2.20–5.04) 1.72 (1.20–2.53) < 0.001
HOMA-β 69.09 (42.00–106.44) 67.36 (46.81–98.60) 0.688
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 4.89 ± 1.15 4.71 ± 0.87 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.96 (1.39–3.05) 1.14 (0.84–1.49) < 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.12 (0.91–1.32) 1.41 (1.25–1.61) < 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.72 ± 1.14 2.46 ± 0.88 < 0.001
MDA (nmol/L) 4.82 (3.95–5.98) 4.32 (3.62–5.27) < 0.001
  1. Data are shown in numbers (percentages), mean ± standard deviations, or medians (interquartile ranges). P values were obtained from t test, Mann-Whitney U test, or chi-square test, where appropriate
  2. All biomarkers detected were fasting
  3. a Missing number was 28. b Missing number was 5. c Missing number was 28. d Missing number was 238. e Missing number was 50. f Missing number was 236
  4. Abbreviations: MetS Metabolic syndrome, BMI Body mass index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, homa-β Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function, HDL High-density lipoprotein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, MDA Malonaldehyde
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