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Table 4 Adjusted changes in serum zinc concentrations, BMI, and characteristics of migraine attacks in migraine patients who received either zinc supplement or placebo

From: Zinc supplementation affects favorably the frequency of migraine attacks: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

  Zinc groupa Placebo groupb F df P-value*
BMI (kg/m2) −0.22 ± 0.15 −0.05 ± 0.14 0.63 1 0.43
Zinc (μg/dL) 3.58 ± 1.19 3.15 ± 1.18 0.06 1 0.80
Headache severityc −1.45 ± 0.30 −0.92 ± 0.29 1.35 1 0.24
Attacks frequency (per m) −2.59 ± 0.71 0.09 ± 0.70 6.67 1 0.01
Attacks duration (hour) −4.31 ± 1.53 −2.38 ± 1.51 0.75 1 0.38
HDRd −56.44 ± 19.00 −14.62 ± 18.70 2.26 1 0.13
  1. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index, HDR headache diary result, VAS visual analog scale
  2. All values are presented as mean (SE), which were adjusted for baseline values, age, gender, BMI, and dietary intake of zinc throughout the trial
  3. aReceived zinc capsule containing 220 mg zinc sulfate one time per day
  4. bReceived placebo capsule containing lactose one time per day
  5. cMeasured by VAS that ranked headache severity from 1 to 10
  6. dDetermined by formula: frequency × duration
  7. *Obtained from analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)