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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 16,558 participants according to baseline potassium intake quintiles

From: Potassium intake, skeletal muscle mass, and effect modification by sex: data from the 2008–2011 KNHANES

   Dietary Potassium Intake  
  Total Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 P value
N (%) 16,558 3311 (20) 3312 (20) 3311 (20) 3312 (20) 3312 (20)  
Age, years 50 ± 16 54 ± 19 50 ± 17 49 ± 16 48 ± 15 48 ± 14 < 0.001
Male, % 40 23 32 41 48 59 < 0.001
Hypertension, % 33 38 33 32 30 30 < 0.001
Diabetes, % 10 12 10 9 9 10 < 0.001
Body weight, kg 62 ± 11 58 ± 11 60 ± 11 62 ± 11 63 ± 11 65 ± 11 < 0.001
Height, cm 162 ± 9 158 ± 9 160 ± 9 162 ± 9 163 ± 9 165 ± 9 < 0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2 24 ± 3 23 ± 4 23 ± 3 24 ± 3 24 ± 3 24 ± 3 < 0.001
Weight training, days/week 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 1.0 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (1.0–3.0) < 0.001
Physical activity, %        < 0.001
 High 15 11 15 14 16 20  
 Moderate 9 8 8 8 8 10  
 Other 76 81 77 78 76 70  
Current smoker, % 30 25 26 30 33 39 < 0.001
ASM, kg 16.2 (13.8–20.9) 14.6 (12.9–17.2) 15.4 (13.5–19.2) 16.3 (13.9–20.7) 17.4 (14.3–21.9) 19.6 (15.1–23.3) < 0.001
SMI, kg/m2 6.6 ± 1.2 6.2 ± 1.0 6.4 ± 1.1 6.6 ± 1.2 6.8 ± 1.2 7.0 ± 1.2 < 0.001
WBC, cells/μL 6.0 ± 1.7 6.1 ± 1.7 6.0 ± 1.7 6.0 ± 1.6 6.0 ± 1.6 6.1 ± 1.7 0.115
Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.8 ± 1.6 13.4 ± 1.5 13.6 ± 1.5 13.8 ± 1.6 14.0 ± 1.6 14.3 ± 1.5 < 0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 188 ± 36 189 ± 37 188 ± 36 187 ± 36 188 ± 36 188 ± 35 0.357
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 96 ± 17 93 ± 19 96 ± 17 97 ± 17 97 ± 16 96 ± 15 < 0.001
Protein intake, g/day 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.6 (0.4–0.7) 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.6 (1.2–2.0) < 0.001
Potassium intake, g/day 2.7 (1.9–3.7) 1.4 (1.1–1.6) 2.1 (1.9–2.2) 2.7 (2.5–2.9) 3.5 (3.2–3.7) 4.9 (4.4–5.8) < 0.001
Energy intake, kcal/day 1760
(1351–2287)
1133
(874–1389)
1509
(1266–1776)
1767
(1502–2079)
2080
(1746–2477)
2598
(2143–3252)
< 0.001
  1. Note: values for categorical variables are shown as percentages; values for continuous variables, as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range)
  2. Conversion factors for units: to convert hemoglobin from g/dL to g/L multiply by 10; to convert total cholesterol from mg/dL to mmol/L multiply by 0.0259
  3. High physical activity was defined as ≥20 min at a time of vigorous-intensity activity on at least three days per week. Moderate physical activity was defined as ≥30 min at a time of moderate-intensity activity on at least five days per week. Other physical activity was defined as all remaining intensities and volumes of activity
  4. Abbreviations: ASM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass; SMI, skeletal muscle mass index; WBC, white blood cell count; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate