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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics by individual and household educational level of the EPIC-NL study population

From: To what extent do dietary costs explain socio-economic differences in dietary behavior?

Sociodemographic characteristics Low education level
(N = 5435)
Middle education level
(N = 1002)
High education level
(N = 2838)
Low household education level
(N = 4316)
Middle household education level
(N = 1012)
High household education level
(N = 3954)
Total
(N = 9306)
Mean age in years (SD) 71.6 (8.8) 64.6 (13.2) 67.3 (9.9) 71.6 (8.8) 65.1 (13.1) 68.4 (9.9) 69.6 (10.0)
Sex (% female) 47.3 8.3 21.8 36.7 7.8 32.8 77.4
Mean energy intake in kcal/day (SD) 1850 (652) 1999 (646) 2023 (630) 1847 (662) 2017 (693) 1973 (616) 1919 (650)
Study center (in %)
 Amsterdam 6.6 2.9 8.7 5.6 2.6 10.0 18.1
 Doetinchem 7.2 1.0 2.4 6.2 1.2 3.2 10.5
 Maastricht 11.4 2.9 6.8 9.4 3.0 8.7 21.1
 Utrecht 33.4 4.2 12.7 25.4 4.2 20.7 50.3
Mean dietary cost in €/day (SD) 4.9 (1.7) 5.4 (1.6) 5.5 (1.6) 4.8 (1.7) 5.3 (1.7) 5.4 (1.6) 5.1 (1.7)
DHD15-index (SD)a 63.2 (15.5) 67.2 (15.9) 72.0 (15.2) 62.2 (15.5) 65.3 (15.7) 70.9 (15.4) 66.2 (16.0)
DASH score (SD)b 20.1 (4.3) 21.2 (4.3) 22.5 (4.2) 20.0 (4.3) 20.8 (4.3) 22.1 (4.3) 21.0 (4.4)
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation
  2. aDHD15 index without the alcohol component ranging from 11.43 to 109.78
  3. bDASH score ranging from 8 to 35