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Table 6 Biomarker levels in control and KD-treated breast cancer patients

From: Does a ketogenic diet have beneficial effects on quality of life, physical activity or biomarkers in patients with breast cancer: a randomized controlled clinical trial

Variable Trial Arms Baseline Midpoint 12 weeks p- value midpoint vs BL p-value 12wks vs midpoint p-value 12wks vs BL
Lactate KD 13.3 ± 11 10.8 ± 4 10.7 ± 3 1 1 1
Control 13.8 ± 4 14.7 ± 6 13.3 ± 4 0.94 0.93 1
MD (95% CI) −0.51(−5.3,4.2) −3.8 (−7,-0.7) −2.6 (−4.8,-0.35) 1 0.01 0.02
LDH (u/l) KD 680 ± 643 666 ± 770 535 ± 517 1 0.48 0.58
Control 706 ± 560 627 ± 556 472 ± 148 1 0.36 0.12
MD (95% CI) −25 (− 374,323) 39 (− 330,409) 62 (− 145,271) 1 1 1
Ammonia (mcg/dl) KD 58 ± 17 60 ± 17 66 ± 15 1 1 0.69
Control 75 ± 27 71 ± 36 75 ± 24 1 0.92 1
MD (95% CI) −17 (−30,3.9) −11(−29,6.9) −9 (−20.8,2.4) 0.03 0.43 0.49
Albumin (g/dl) KD 4.5 ± 0.33 4.5 ± 0.26 4.5 ± 0.33 1 1 1
Control 4.4 ± 0.43 4.5 ± 0.37 4.5 ± 0.37 1 1 1
MD (95% CI) 0.08(−0.13,0.29 0.04-(0.15,0.24) 0.04 (−0.16,0.2) 1 1 1
ALP KD 197 ± 126 169 ± 76 149 ± 71 1 1 0.99
Control 325 ± 375 333 ± 440 240 ± 164 1 0.11 0.51
MD (95% CI) − 127(− 285,29) −164(−372,44) −90(− 162,-19) 0.19 0. 13* 0.02*
K (meq/l) KD 4.2 ± 0.39 4.1 ± 0.43 4.1 ± 0.33 1 0.46 0.13
Control 4.2 ± 0.35 4.3 ± 0.38 4.2 ± 0.37 1 1 0.75
MD95% CI −0.05 (− 0.26,0.15) −0.14)0.41,0.12( −0.10 (−0.29,0.08) 1 0.69 0.88
P (mg/Dl) KD 4 ± 0.71 3.9 ± 0.66 4.4 ± 0.88 1 0.05 0.06
Control 4.1 ± 0.92 4.2 ± 0.52 4.3 ± 0.65 1 1 1
MD95% CI −0.17 (− 0.63,0.28( −0.24 (0.63,0.14) 0.07 (−0.34,0.50( 1 0.93 1
Mg (mg/dL) KD 2.1 ± 0.19 2 ± 0.13 2 ± 0.19 1 1 1
Control 2.1 ± 0.21 2 ± 0.19 2 ± 0.23 0.43 0.82 1
MD95% CI −0.001 (− 0.11,0.11) 0.07 (− 0.03,0.18) −0.02 (−0.14,0.09) 1 0.76 1
Ca (mg/dl) KD 9.4 ± 1.2 9.4 ± 0.80 9.3 ± 0.59 0.37 1 0.16
Control 9/4 ± 0.95 9.2 ± 0.78 9.4 ± 0.56 0.84 0.85 1
MD95% CI 0.36 0.21 −0/10 0.42 1 1
Na (meq/l) KD 146 ± 43 140 ± 3 140 ± 2 0.83 1 0.79
Control 138 ± 2.8 138 ± 2 133 ± 24 1 0.80 0.80
MD 95% CI 7.9(−9.8,25.7) 1.9 (0.19,3.6) 7 (−2.3,17.3) 0.56 1 0.63
  1. BL Baseline, Midpoint: 1st follow-up or week 6, 12 weeks: 12 weeks or last follow-up, MD Mean Difference, CI Confidence Interval Analysis type: Repeated measure, all p values were calculated based on Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons * Ancova: Adjusted for base line value and cancer type