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Table 4 Changes in energy-adjusted fruit and vegetable consumption from pre- to mid-pregnancy and new-born birth weight

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy and birth weight of new-borns in Japan: the Tohoku medical megabank project birth and three-generation cohort study

Quartiles   Crude model Multivariable modela
  n β 95% CI β 95% CI
Fruit
 Category Ab 6266 Reference   Reference  
 Category Bc 2539 −2.6 −18.9–13.7 −5.1 −21.3–11.2
 Category Cd 2539 20.5 4.2–36.8 19.4 3.1–35.8
 Category De 6266 37.0 24.6–49.4 37.6 25.0–50.3
Vegetables
 Category Ab 6348 Reference   Reference  
 Category Bc 2457 9.8 −6.7–26.3 6.3 −10.4–23.0
 Category Cd 2457 −0.9 −17.4–15.6 −9.6 −26.3–7.1
 Category De 6348 4.7 −7.7–17.0 −6.4 −19.8–6.9
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age (continuous variable), pre-pregnancy BMI (< 18.5; 18.5 to 25.0; ≥25.0 kg/m2), parity (never; one or more), educational attainment (high school graduate or less; junior college or vocational college graduate; university graduate or above; others), household income (< 4,000,000; 4,000,000-5,999,999; ≥ 6,000,000 Japanese Yen/year), cigarette smoking (never; stop before pregnancy; stop after pregnancy; current), alcohol drinking (never; former; current), folic acid supplementation during pregnancy (yes vs. no), changes in fruit, vegetable, meat, fish, grain, potato, bean, and daily product consumption (category A; B; C; D) except for the exposures
  2. bWomen whose answers to the first and second FFQs were in the first or second quartile
  3. cWomen whose answers to the first FFQ comprised the first or second quartile and whose responses to the second FFQ were in the third or fourth quartile
  4. dWomen whose answers to the first FFQ were in the third or fourth quartile and whose responses to the second FFQ were the first or second quartile
  5. eWomen whose answers to the first and second FFQs were in both the third or fourth quartile
  6. All dietary consumption was energy-adjusted using the residual method
  7. BMI Body mass index; FFQ Food frequency questionnaire; 95% CI 95% confidence interval