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Table 2 Outcome effectiveness in 107 studies of nutrition, physical activity and obesity interventions in young adults

From: Effectiveness of gender-targeted versus gender-neutral interventions aimed at improving dietary intake, physical activity and/or overweight/obesity in young adults (aged 17–35 years): a systematic review and meta-analysis

   Outcome effective n (%)
Total Gender-targeted Gender-Neutral
Specific outcome n % n % n %
Nutrition (n = 29) Fruit and/or vegetable intake (n = 22) 17 77 2 100 15 75
Energy intake from fat (n = 2) 1 50 1 100 0 0
Micronutrient intake (n = 2) 2 100 1 100 1 100
Whole grain bread intake (n = 1) 1 100 1 100 0 0
Diet behaviour score (n = 2) 1 50 1 100 0 0
Meat consumption (n = 2) 2 100 1 100 1 100
Total effective studies 23 79 6 100 17 74
Physical activity (n = 28) Time in physical activity (n = 17) 10 59 3 75 7 54
Steps per day (n = 6) 5 83 3 100 2 67
Gym attendance (n = 2) 2 100 1 100 1 100
Met PA guidelines (n = 1) 1 100 0 0 1 100
Exercise frequency (n = 4) 3 75 0 0 3 75
PA score (time x frequency) (n = 1) 1 100 0 0 1 100
Total effective studies 20 71 6 86 14 67
Obesity (n = 36) Weight (n = 29) 16 55 5 42 10 59
BMI (n = 11) 4 36 1 33 4 50
Waist Circumference (n = 4) 1 25 0 0 1 50
Visceral fat area (n = 1) 1 100 0 0 1 100
Total effective studies 18 50 5 36 13 59
Nutrition and Physical activity (n = 6) Met PA guidelines (n = 1) 1 100 0 0 1 100
Exercise frequency (n = 2) 2 100 0 0 2 100
Time in PA (n = 2) 1 50 0 0 1 50
Fruit and/or vegetable intake (n = 4) 2 50 0 0 2 50
Energy intake from fat (n = 2) 2 100 0 0 2 100
Total effective studies 5 83 0 0 5 100
Obesity, Nutrition and Physical activity (n = 5) Fruit and/or vegetable intake (n = 3) 3 100 0 0 3 100
Time in PA (n = 3) 1 33 0 0 1 50
Total effective studies 3 60 0 0 3 75
Obesity and Physical activity (n = 3) Time in PA (n = 2) 1 50 0 0 1 50
Total effective studies 1 33 0 0 1 50
All studies (n = 107) Total effective studies 70 65 17 57 53 69
  1. No statistically significant differences between gender-targeted and gender-neutral studies (p > 0.05)