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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics in 107 studies of nutrition, physical activity and obesity interventions in young adults, by gender-targeted versus gender-neutral studies

From: Effectiveness of gender-targeted versus gender-neutral interventions aimed at improving dietary intake, physical activity and/or overweight/obesity in young adults (aged 17–35 years): a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Total (n = 107) Gender-targeted (n = 30) Gender-neutral (n = 77)
n % n % n %
Publication year n (%) a
 Before 1999 2 2 2 7 0 0
 1999–2002 4 4 3 10 1 1
 2003–2007 6 6 3 10 3 4
 2008–2012 22 21 4 13 18 23
 2013–December 2019 73 68 18 60 55 71
Country n (%)
 United States 58 54 15 50 43 56
 Australia 11 10 3 10 8 10
 Canada 8 7 2 7 6 8
 UK 5 5 0 0 5 7
 Thailand 3 3 1 4 2 3
 Finland 3 3 3 11 0 0
 New Zealand 2 2 0 0 2 3
 Italy 2 2 0 0 2 3
 Other 14 13 5 17 9 12
Number of participants
 Total 29,566   10,400 35 19,166 65
 Mean 276.3   346.7   248.9  
 Median 124   81   150  
 Range 20–3336   32–3336   20–2024  
Sex n (%) a
 Female 17,294 60 5095 49 12,199 65
 Male 11,750 40 5302 51 6448 35
Age
 Mean years (SD) 21.1 2.9 21.1 3.6 21.1 2.7
 17- ≤25 years 59 55 15 50 44 57
 17- ≤30 years 23 21 7 23 16 21
 17- ≤35 years 24 22 8 27 16 21
 Not reported 1 1 0 0 1 1
Ethnicity n (%)
 Predominantly white 62 58 13 43 49 64
 Predominantly non-white 7 7 1 3 6 8
 Not reported 38 36 16 53 22 29
Recruitment setting n (%) a
 College/University 84 79 19 63 65 84
 Community 10 9 2 7 8 10
 Health service 2 2 2 7 0 0
 Workplace 1 1 1 3 0 0
 Military 4 4 4 13 0 0
 College/University with other setting 5 5 2 7 3 4
 Not reported 1 1 0 0 1 1
Focus of primary outcome/s n (%)
 Nutrition 29 27 6 20 23 30
 Physical Activity 28 26 7 23 21 27
 Obesity 36 34 14 47 22 29
 Nutrition & Physical Activity 6 6 1 3 5 6
 Obesity, Nutrition & Physical Activity 5 5 1 3 4 5
 Obesity & Physical Activity 3 3 1 3 2 3
Intervention focus n (%) a
 Nutrition 48 28 7 17 41 31
 Physical Activity 50 29 13 31 37 28
 Obesity 11 6 7 17 4 3
 Nutrition & Physical Activity 10 6 1 2 9 7
 Obesity, Nutrition & Physical Activity 31 18 7 17 24 18
 Obesity, Nutrition &/or Physical Activity + other 24 14 7 17 17 13
Mode of intervention delivery n (%)
 Face-to-face only 38 22 12 29 26 20
 eHealth only 61 35 8 19 53 40
 Print materials only 4 2 0 0 4 3
 Wearable device only 2 1 1 2 1 1
 Face-to-face + print materials 22 13 9 21 13 10
 Face-to-face + eHealth 21 12 6 14 15 11
 Face-to-face + eHealth + wearable device 2 1 0 0 2 2
 Face-to-face + eHealth + print materials 8 5 2 5 6 5
 Face-to-face + wearable device 2 1 1 2 1 1
 eHealth + wearable device 7 4 3 7 4 3
 eHealth + print materials 4 2 0 0 4 3
 Wearable device + print materials 2 1 0 0 2 2
Study arms a
 Total 261   70 27 191 73
 Active 173   42 24 131 76
Intervention duration (weeks) a
 Mean 15.5   15   15.7  
 Median 8.0   10.0   8.0  
 Range < 1–156   < 1–130   < 1–156  
Retention rate
 Post-intervention (%) 83%   82%   83%  
 Range 23–100%   33–100%   23–100%  
 At longest follow-up point (%) 74%   69%   76%  
 Range 8–100%   8–100%   11–98%  
  1. aStatistically significant difference between gender-targeted and gender-neutral studies (p < 0.05)