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Table 2 Subgroup analyses for the prevalence of stroke in highest versus lowest trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) categories

From: Gut microbiota-associated metabolite trimethylamine N-Oxide and the risk of stroke: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis

Group No. of studies WMD (95% CI) P within group P between group* Effect model P heterogeneity I2, %
Total 5 1.67 (0.86, 3.24) 0.047   Random < 0.001 84.9
Location
 USA 2 2.07 (0.31, 13.82) 0.451 0.056 Random < 0.001 95.1
 Asia 2 1.47 (1.06, 2.03) 0.019   Fixed 0.565 0
 EVOLVE trial 1 1.11 (0.61, 1.99) 0.721    
Study quality     0.004    
High 3 2.31 (0.76, 7.02) 0.137   Random < 0.001 87.1
Moderate 2 1.12 (0.63, 2.01) 0.687   Random 0.103 62.4
Design
Cross-sectional 2 1.26 (0.75, 2.11) 0.36 < 0.001 Fixed 0.349 0
Cohort 1 5.41 (3.16, 9.25) < 0.001   Fixed
Case-cohort 1 0.78 (0.40, 1.48) 0.45   Fixed
Nested case-control 1 1.43 (1.01, 2.00) 0.039   Fixed
Sample     0.024    
Plasma 2 2.07 (0.31, 13.82) 0.452   Random < 0.001 95.1
Serum 3 1.37 (1.03, 1.83) 0.026   Fixed 0.6 0.0
Disease status     < 0.001    
Patients with CVD 2 1.12 (0.45, 2.75) 0.797   Random 0.143 53.5
Stroke 1 1.43 (1.01, 2.00) 0.039   Fixed 0 0
Renal disorders 1 1.11 (0.61, 1.99) 0.721   Fixed 0 0
T2DM 1 5.41 (3.16, 9.25) < 0.001   Fixed 0 0
Sample size     0.048    
1000 < 3 2.03 (0.83, 4.95) 0.116   Random < 0.001 90.3
≥ 1000 2 1.12 (0.45, 2.75) 0.797   Random 0.143 53.5
Mean/ median age (y)     0.023    
≥ 65 2 1.12 (0.45, 2.75) 0.726   Fixed 0
60–65 2 2.73 (0.74, 10.07) 0..130   Random < 0.001 94.1
< 60 1 1.11 (0.61, 1.99) 0.797   Random 0.143 53.5
Male %     0.004    
< 55 2 1.12 (0.63, 2.01) 0.687    0.103 62.4
≥ 55 3 2.31 (0.76, 7.02) 0.137    < 0.001 87.1
HTN%     < 0.001    
< 80 2 3.67 (1.41, 9.54) 0.008   Random 0.102 62.5
≥ 80 3 1.17 (0.83, 1.64) 0.356   Fixed 0.248 28.3
Diabetes %     0.024    
< 50 3 1.37 (1.03, 1.83) 0.026   Fixed 0.6 0
≥ 50 2 2.45 (1.62, 3.70) < 0.001   Random < 0.001 95.1
Current smoking %     < 0.001    
< 40 3 1.17 (0.83, 1.64) 0.356   Fixed 0.248 28.3
≥ 40 2 3.67 (1.41, 9.54) 0.008   Random 0.102 62.5
  1. Abbreviations: EVOLVE valuation of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events, CI Confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, T2DM Type two diabetes, HTN Hypertension, WMD Weighted mean difference *Between groups comparisons are obtained from inverse variance method