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Table 3 Associations of DDS, FVS and four DPS with WHZ of children aged <5 years (n = 514) in the Nouna HDSS

From: Dietary habits associated with growth development of children aged < 5 years in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

Weight-for-Height z-score (WHZ) Per 1 score-point increase Tercile 1 Tercile 2 Tercile 3
β-coef. 95% CI p-value trend   β-coef. 95% CI β-coef. 95% CI
Dietary Diversity Score (DDS)
 Model 1 Crude model: WHZ 0.07 0.02, 0.12 0.005** Ref. 0.26 0.03, 0.48 0.29 0.08, 0.50
 Model 2 Model 1 + demographics 0.05 0.00, 0.11 0.058 Ref. 0.23 −0.01, 0.47 0.25 0.04, 0.47
 Model 3 Model 2 + socio-economics + clinical 0.06 0.00, 0.12 0.043* Ref. 0.28 0.05, 0.52 0.29 0.06, 0.51
Food Variety Score (FVS)         
 Model 1 Crude model: WHZ 0.02 0.00, 0.03 0.027* Ref. 0.25 0.02, 0.47 0.27 0.04, 0.49
 Model 2 Model 1 + demographics 0.01 −0.01, 0.03 0.213 Ref. 0.22 − 0.02, 0.45 0.18 − 0.06, 0.43
 Model 3 Model 2 + socio-economics + clinical 0.01 −0.01, 0.03 0.252 Ref. 0.26 0.02, 0.49 0.20 −0.05, 0.46
Leaves-based dietary pattern score
 Model 1 Crude model: WHZ 0.01 0.00, 0.02 0.219 Ref. 0.09 −0.13, 0.31 0.02 −0.19, 0.23
 Model 2 Model 1 + demographics 0.00 −0.01, 0.01 0.920 Ref. −0.01 −0.24, 0.22 − 0.07 −0.30, 0.15
 Model 3 Model 2 + socio-economics + clinical 0.01 −0.01, 0.02 0.506 Ref. 0.07 −0.18, 0.32 −0.01 − 0.26, 0.25
Beans and poultry-based dietary pattern score
 Model 1 Crude model: WHZ 0.02 0.00, 0.05 0.025* Ref. 0.15 −0.07, 0.38 0.28 0.06, 0.50
 Model 2 Model 1 + demographics 0.02 0.00, 0.04 0.068 Ref. 0.15 −0.07, 0.37 0.22 −0.01, 0.46
 Model 3 Model 2 + socio-economics + clinical 0.01 −0.01, 0.04 0.244 Ref. 0.15 −0.08, 0.38 0.19 −0.06, 0.44
Maize and fish-based dietary pattern score         
 Model 1 Crude model: WHZ 0.03 0.01, 0.05 0.001** Ref. 0.31 0.08, 0.53 0.34 0.12, 0.56
 Model 2 Model 1 + demographics 0.03 0.01, 0.05 0.007** Ref. 0.21 −0.02, 0.45 0.29 0.04, 0.53
 Model 3 Model 2 + socio-economics + clinical 0.03 0.01, 0.06 0.004** Ref. 0.21 −0.03, 0.45 0.34 0.09, 0.60
Millet and meat-based dietary pattern score
 Model 1 Crude model: WHZ −0.01 −0.03, 0.00 0.135 Ref. 0.07 −0.15, 0.30 −0.14 − 0.35, 0.07
 Model 2 Model 1 + demographics − 0.02 −0.04, 0.00 0.023* Ref. 0.06 −0.16, 0.28 −0.25 − 0.47, − 0.02
 Model 3 Model 2 + socio-economics + clinical −0.01 − 0.03, 0.01 0.232 Ref. 0.08 −0.15, 0.30 −0.16 − 0.40, 0.08
  1. * p-value < 0.05, ** p-value < 0.01