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Table 2 Nutrients intake by sociodemographic factors in children from 12 to 59 mo, stratified by agea,b

From: Sociodemographic factors associated with low intake of bioavailable iron in preschoolers: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, Mexico

NutrientsAreacRegionsSESd
RuralUrbanNorthCenterSouthLowMiddleHigh
12 - 59 mo (n= 1012)
 Total iron (mg/d)8.11±6.2 (6.9)9.79±6.7 (8.2)e9.98±8.1 (8.6)9.75±6.8 (6.9)8.38±5.8 (7.3)8.04±6.2 (6.7)x9.42±7.3 (7.8)xy10.68±5.8 (9.5)y
 Non-heme iron (mg/d)7.91±6.17 (6.8)9.52±6.69 (8.1)e9.67±8.10 (8.4)9.47±6.81 (7.7)8.18±5.79 (7.3)7.85±6.22 (6.5)x9.15±7.30 (7.7)xy10.39±5.84 (9.2)y
 Heme iron (mg/d)0.19±0.35 (0.03)0.27±0.31 (0.15)e0.28±0.42 (0.18)0.27±0.32 (0.14)0.20±0.30 (0.05)0.19±0.31 (0.04)x0.27±0.35 (0.11)y0.29±0.30 (0.19)y
 Vitamin C (mg/d)75.32±100.4 (58.5)84.46±80.3 (44.6)70.36±69.0 (51.0)88.57±89.5 (60.2)78.58±89.6 (50.1)69.31±96.6 (42.9)x78.57±73.6 (56.3)x104.33±89.5 (77.5)z
 Meat (g/d)41.48±67.8 (10.2)54.15±59.3 (35.0)e51.95±73.5 (25.0)55.33±59.4 (36.2)43.45±61.4 (20.0)40.99±62.4 (15.7)52.60±64.2 (26.1)58.72±58.2 (39.8)
 Phytates (mg/d)796.9±674.8 (699.1)623.9±514.3 (496.0)e761.6±811.9 (541.9)613.9±450.1 (519.8)719.6±586.9 (615.2)769.7±642.7 (643.0)x669.0±516.9 (548.2)xy572.8±544.2 (438.3)y
 Calcium (mg/d)685.2±525.9 (627.3)815.3±815.3 (721.9)e779.5±506.8 (720.4)815.0±479.8 (751.4)723.5±541.9 (619.5)657.3±502.4 (602.3)x822.3±523.5 (724.5)y858.7±463.9 (779.2)y
12 -23 mo (n= 151)
 Total iron (mg/d)6.36±5.7 (4.9)8.10±6.3 (7.4)7.45±5.7 (6.6)7.51±6.0 (6.6)7.47±6.5 (6.5)6.89±5.0 (6.8)7.81±7.3 (5.6)8.16±6.2 (7.4)
 Non-heme iron (mg/d)6.19±5.71 (4.7)7.96±6.36 (7.4)7.35±5.82 (5.7)7.38±6.04 (6.2)7.28±6.56 (6.5)6.69±4.99 (6.5)7.68±7.36 (5.5)8.50±6.23 (7.4)
 Heme iron (mg/d)0.17±0.30 (0.13)0.14±0.23 (0.23)0.10±0.20 (0.25)0.12±0.21 (0.16)0.18±0.28 (0.17)0.19±0.28 (0.25)0.13±0.24 (0.14)0.10±0.19 (0.26)
 Vitamin C (mg/d)80.95±153.5 (61.5)74.37±68.9 (41.4)81.79±89.7 (59.7)63.28±52.3 (65.7)83.07±124.0 (44.8)72.41±127.6 (41.4)72.08±75.2 (52.7)99.29±85.5 (84.4)
 Meat (g/d)37.08±59.6 (20.7)34.39±50.7 (9.8)24.36±47.1 (0)28.57±43.9 (0)42.56±59.1 (15.7)45.03±59.1 (21.9)30.75±50.3 (13.5)22.16±43.3 (0)
 Phytates (mg/d)550.8±566.2 (429.2)449.9±546.2 (330.9)486.9±538.3 (365.5)340.0±252.3 (330.9)571.0±659.7 (378.5)636.9±719.1 (478.5)411.4±387.1 (333.4)287.9±289.2 (210.7)
Calcium (mg/d)813.7±741.0 (654.2)696.7±506.0 (608.3)700.2±464.0 (681.8)961.7±431.2 (632.0)777.3±692.0 (608.3)793.8±631.7 (654.2)709.3±609.1 (601.8)671.1±442.2 (420.7)
24-59 mo (n= 861)
Total iron (mg/d)8.38±6.2 (7.2)10.02±6.7 (8.5)e10.31±8.3 (9.0)9.97±6.8 (8.0)8.55±5.6 (7.6)8.24±6.4 (6.7)x9.65±7.2 (8.1)x10.92±5.7 (9.5)y
Non-heme iron (mg/d)8.18±6.16 (7.0)9.73±6.68 (8.2)e10.00±8.25 (8.5)9.69±6.80 (7.8)8.35±5.62 (7.3)8.05±6.37 (6.5)x9.36±7.23 (8.1)xy10.62±5.76 (9.2)y
Heme iron (mg/d)0.19±0.36 (0.02)0.28±0.32 (0.17)e0.30±0.43 (0.21)x0.28±0.32 (0.16)x0.20±0.30 (0.05)y0.18±0.32 (0.03)x0.29±0.35 (0.17) xy0.30±0.30 (0.23)y
Vitamin C (mg/d)74.46±90.8 (45.7)85.85±81.1 (58.5)e68.85±66.0 (47.6)91.16±90.8 (60.2)77.71±82.1 (52.0)68.78±90.5 (42.9) x79.53±72.94 (56.3)xy104.81±89.7()y
Meat (g/d)42.15±68.8 (73.2)56.88±59.5 (50.0)e55.58±74.9 (36.6)58.07±59.5 (36.2)43.62±61.7 (20.5)40.30±62.9 (10.9)x55.85±64.6 (35.9)y62.20±58.1 (41.5)y
Phytates (mg/d)834.5±677.1 (742)648.0±504.6 (542.3)e797.8±828.2 (556.0)641.9±450.6 (581.0)742.2±567.9 (641.7)794.4.±625.8 (690.0)x707.2±515.4 (608.1)xy599.9±551.5.3 (459.3)y
Calcium (mg/d)665.5±485.0 (624.1)831.7±485.8 (737.5)e790.0±509.7 (720.4)827.6±479.2 (751.4)713.1±510.3 (623.1)634.0±473.3 (585.6)x839.1±508.0 (740.9)y876.6±461.3 (832.2)y
  1. aData are presented as mean ±SD (median)
  2. bnalyses adjusted by survey design
  3. cRural: localities with <2500 inhabitants, urban: ≥2500 inhabitants
  4. dSES: socioeconomic status, estimated by means of analyses of main components with information of the dwelling characteristic and household goods
  5. eSignificant difference with rural area
  6. x, y, zBetween categories of region and SES, values without a letter in common between columns are significant different (p < 0.05), adjusted by the Bonferroni method