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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population in CHNS(2015) by gendersa,b

From: Gender differences in the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients intake and body weight outcomes in Chinese adults

General CharacteristicWomen(N = 5964)Men(N = 4934)p-Value
Age,n (%)  < 0.001
 18–44 years2318(38.9)1753(35.5) 
 45–64 years3646(61.1)3181(64.5) 
Education level, n (%)  < 0.001
 Primary/illiterate1752(29.4)933(18.9) 
 Middle school2122(35.6)1929(39.1) 
 High/above2090(35.0)2072(42.0) 
Income level, n (%)  0.005
 Low1883(31.6)1429(29.0) 
 Medium1963(32.9)1630(33.0) 
 High2118(35.5)1875(38.0) 
Geogerphical region, n (%)  0.437
 Rural3727(62.5)3119(63.2) 
 Urban2237(37.5)1815(36.8) 
PA level, n (%)  < 0.001
 Low1923(32.2)1708(34.6) 
 Medium2108(35.3)1536(31.1) 
 High1933(32.4)1690(34.3) 
Smoking, n (%)  < 0.001
 Ever/Never5870(98.4)2155(43.7%) 
 Current94(1.6)2779(56.3%) 
Drinking, n (%)  < 0.001
 Ever/Never5563(93.3)2153(43.6) 
 Current401(6.7)2781(56.4) 
BMI category, n (%)  < 0.001
 Underweight291(4.9)183(3.7) 
 Normal2931(49.1)2220(45.0) 
 Overweight1933(32.4)1820(36.9) 
 Obesity809(13.6)711(14.4) 
BMI (kg/m2)24.0 ± 0.124.4 ± 0.1< 0.001
WC (cm)81.0 ± 0.286.2 ± 0.2< 0.001
Dietary intake
 Daily energy (k cal)1919.4 ± 8.92273.9 ± 11.3< 0.001
 Fat (g)77.7 ± 0.691.5 ± 0.7< 0.001
 Protein (g)62.3 ± 0.374.0 ± 0.4< 0.001
 Carbohydrate (g)242.0 ± 1.4282.4 ± 1.8< 0.001
 Fat (% E3)35.9 ± 0.236.0 ± 0.20.819
 Protein (% E 4)13.2 ± 0.113.2 ± 0.10.197
 Carbohydrate (% E5)50.7 ± 0.249.8 ± 0.2< 0.001
  1. aData for categorical variable expressed as number (%); bValues are mean ± s.e. for continuous variables. % E3,4,5 means the percentage of energy intake from fat, protein and carbohydrate, respectively