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Table 1 Intakes (dl/week) according to the three methods used

From: “Everyone can take photos.” Feasibility and relative validity of phone photography-based assessment of children’s diets – a mixed methods study

 24 h recall (reference)1Photo method1 FFQ 
CategoryMean intake (dl)Cons. (%)Mean intake (dl)Diff. (%)Wilcoxon signed rank test (P)Spearman’s rhoCons. (%)Correctly classified (%)Mean intake (dl)Diff. (%)Wilcoxon signed rank test (P)Spearman’s rhoCons. (%)Correctly classified (%)
Fruits and vegetables16.8 (10.4)10011.2 (9.5)−330.003**0.609**10010012.1 (11.3)−280.126 0.342100100
- fruit7.8 (6.2)844.8 (6.0)−380.020*0.562*68816.2 (5.8)−210.372 0.386100100
- vegetables9.0 (6.4)1006.4 (4.5)−290.006**0.688**1001005.9 (7.5)−350.022*0.377100100
Energy dense foods3.0 (3.7)792.0 (3.0)−320.056 0.612**58737.3 (3.5)1440.004**0.106100100
- cakes/biscuits1.4 (2.0)630.8 (1.6)−430.074 0.575*32501.6 (1.3)130.280 0.4858492
- sweets/chocolate0.4 (0.7)370.3 (0.8)−140.866 0.600**21572.0 (1.8)4050.001**0.4206886
- ice-cream0.7 (1.7)210.7 (1.7)−21.000 0.997**211001.6 (1.1)1320.021*−0.2028475
- crisps/savoury snacks0.5 (1.3)160.2 (0.6)−560.285 0.990**161002.2 (1.7)3180.007**−0.0267967
Sweet drinks6.9 (6.5)745.7 (5.7)−170.147 0.845**74936.6 (5.9)−50.383 0.25995100
- soft drinks3.0 (3.5)581.9 (3.2)−350.074 0.593**37552.0 (3.4)−330.333 −0.3155346
- sweetened milk1.5 (2.9)261.2 (2.5)−190.066 0.998**261003.0 (4.2)1020.195 0.27563100
- fruit juice2.4 (4.9)372.6 (4.3)80.573 0.761**53861.6 (2.4)−350.900 −0,2615343
  1. 1 Intakes on weekdays and weekend day weighted to estimate weekly intake
  2. Intakes are described using mean (std.dev) but are often skewed due to zero intakes, so non-parametric statistical tests are performed
  3. Correctly classified means correctly classified as consumers
  4. N = 19 with complete data from all 3 methods
  5. Cons = consumers
  6. Diff = difference in mean intakes
  7. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01