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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of whole grains intake and risk of gastric cancer

From: Association of whole grains intake and the risk of digestive tract cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups No. of studies No. of Participants (Cases) RR (95% CI) P Heterogeneity Test
Chi-Square I2 phet
All studies 11 1,021,955(8274) 0.64(0.53,0.79) < 0.001 50.42 78.2% < 0.001
Study design
 Cohort 2 1,004,696(1518) 0.89(0.78,1.01) 0.070 3.43 41.7% 0.180
 Case-control 9 17,259(6756) 0.55(0.41,0.74) < 0.001 41.59 80.8% < 0.001
Geographic locations
 Europe 8 16,985(6619) 0.64(0.53,0.79) < 0.001 50.42 78.2% < 0.001
 America 3 1,004,970(1655) 0.70(0.50,1.00) 0.051 9.92 69.8% 0.019
Sample size
  ≥ 500 10 1,021,681(8137) 0.67(0.54,0.82) < 0.001 45.51 78.0% < 0.001
  < 500 1 274(137) 0.42(0.24,0.74) 0.003 N/A N/A N/A
Adjustment for energy
 Yes 1 34,651(169) 0.61(0.34,0.81) 0.026 N/A N/A N/A
 No 10 987,204(8105) 0.65(0.52,0.80) < 0.001 49.03 79.6% < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations:N/A Not applicable