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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria following the PICOS approacha

From: Effects of resistant starch interventions on circulating inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

PICOSInclusion and exclusion criteriaData extraction
ParticipantsAdult population’s ≥ 18 and ≤ 65 y with or without disease. Studies with a median age between these values were eligible.
Participants with mean age ≤ 18 y or nonclinical studies were excluded.
Age, sex, gender, sample size, location, inclusion and exclusion criteria
InterventionResistant Starch defined as “resistant maltodextrin”, “resistant dextrin”, “indigestible starch”, “high amylose starch” or any other compound defined by the author as a resistant starch if justification for the compound fulfilling criteria as a resistant starch were explicitly stated. Resistant starch to be administered at a dose of ≥10 g/day for ≥3 wk. Trials that included other interventions (e.g., drug use) were included if the effect of the resistant sarch alone could be isolated. Multiple intervention arms were eligible.Resistant Starch type, placebo type, intervention and placebo dosage, duration of intervention
ComparatorsOnly studies with control group were included, The effect of the
Resistant starch alone had to be able to be isolated.
Type and dose of comparator, compliance
OutcomesMean changes and SD in IL-6, CRP, hs-CRP and TNF-αOutcomes measured, Evaluation methods and side effects.
Study designOnly randomized controlled trials, where it was possible to extract data on just the resistant starch compared with to placebo. We included both the parallel and crossover designDesign of the study, loss of the study, study quality
  1. a PICOS, participants, intervention, comparator, outcome, study type