Skip to main content

Table 5 Differences in imbalance nutrient intake of macro- and micronutrients by sexes per age group

From: Are dietary intake and nutritional status influenced by gender? The pattern of dietary intake in Lao PDR: a developing country

 

Toddlers (n = 284)

Children (n = 416)

Adolescents (n = 213)

Adult (n = 276)

Older adults (n = 296)

Pregnant women (n = 140)

Lactating women (n = 146)

 

Boys (n = 142)

Girls (n = 142)

 

Boys (n = 212)

Girls (n = 204)

 

Boys (n = 107)

Girls (n = 106)

 

Men (n = 124)

Women (n = 152)

 

Men (n = 145)

Women (n = 151)

       
 

n (%)

n (%)

pa

n (%)

n (%)

Pa

n (%)

n (%)

Pa

n (%)

n (%)

Pa

n (%)

n (%)

Pa

n (%)

Pb

Pc

n (%)

Pb

Pc

Macronutrients

 Carbohydrates

23 (16.2)

29 (20.4)

0.357

7 (3.3)

18 (8.8)

0.018

1 (0.9)

3 (2.8)

0.369f

0 (0.0)

1 (0.7)

1.000f

1 (0.7)

4 (2.6)

0.371f

8 (5.7)

0.008f

0.016f

16 (11.0)

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

 Protein

4 (2.8)

6 (4.2)

0.52

1 (0.5)

4 (2.0)

0.208f

5 (4.7)

9 (8.5)

0.261

10 (8.1)

27 (17.8)

0.019

20 (13.8)

47 (31.1)

< 0.0001

43 (31.9)

< 0.0001

0.006

60 (41.1)

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

 Fat

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 Dietary fibreg

142 (100)

142 (100)

NA

211 (99.5)

204 (100)

1.000f

107 (100)

105 (99.1)

0.314

124 (100)

152 (100)

NA

143 (98.6)

149 (98.7)

1.000f

139 (99.3)

1.000f

0.479f

146 (100)

NA

NA

Vitamins

 A

-   nsufficient intaked

89 (62.7)

73 (51.4)

0.073

177 (83.5)

164 (80.4)

0.66

104 (97.2)

96 (90.6)

0.043

119 (96.0)

139 (91.4)

0.13

127 (87.6)

142 (94.0)

0.054

123 (87.9)

0.017

0.479

141 (96.6)

1.000f

0.063

-   Excessive intakee

16 (11.3)

14 (9.9)

 

12 (5.7)

12 (5.9)

 

0 (0.0)

3 (2.8)

 

0 (0.0)

5 (3.3)

 

5 (3.4)

2 (1.3)

 

4 (2.9)

  

3 (2.1)

  

B1 (Thiamin)h

-   Insufficient intaked

97 (68.3)

91 (64.1)

0.452

149 (70.3)

146 (71.6)

0.773

85 (79.4)

83 (78.3)

0.839

105 (84.7)

106 (69.7)

0.004

115 (79.3)

117 (77.5)

0.703

119 (85.0)

0.942

0.002

128 (87.7)

0.476

< 0.0001

B2 (Riboflavin)h

-   Insufficient intaked

71 (50.0)

59 (41.5)

0.153

124 (58.5)

123 (60.3)

0.708

88 (82.2)

82 (77.4)

0.375

108 (87.1)

122 (80.3)

0.13

124 (85.5)

132 (87.4)

0.633

112 (80.0)

0.123

0.955

132 (90.4)

0.388

0.014

B3 (Niacin)

-   Insufficient intaked

89 (62.7)

88 (62.0)

0.955

108 (51.0)

112 (54.9)

0.527

62 (57.9)

66 (62.3)

0.52

57 (46.0)

88 (57.9)

0.048

60 (41.4)

99 (65.6)

< 0.0001

118 (84.3)

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

123 (84.2)

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

-   Excessive intakee

14 (9.9)

13 (9.2)

 

6 (2.8)

8 (3.9)

 

5 (4.7)

1 (0.9)

 

2 (1.6)

0 (0.0)

 

2 (1.4)

0 (0.0)

 

1 (0.7)

  

1 (0.7)

  

C

-   Insufficient intaked

80 (56.3)

73 (51.4)

0.405

152 (71.7)

149 (73.0)

0.76

77 (72.0)

81 (76.4)

0.458

102 (82.3)

105 (69.1)

0.011

102 (70.3)

95 (62.9)

 

96 (68.6)

  

125 (85.6)

  

-   Excessive intakee

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

0.176

0 (0.0)

0.01

0.925

0 (0.0)

0.452

0.001

Minerals

 Calciumg

-   Insufficient intaked

106 (74.7)

90 (63.4)

0.04

206 (97.2)

197 (96.6)

0.725

104 (97.2)

105 (99.1)

0.621f

119 (96.0)

152 (100)

NA

142 (97.9)

149 (98.7)

NA

138 (98.6)

0.259f

0.229f

142 (97.3)

0.736

0.04

-   Excessive intakee

3 (2.1)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

1 (0.8)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

1 (0.7)

 

0 (0.0)

  

0 (0.0)

  

 Iron

-    Insufficient intaked

53 (37.3)

59 (41.5)

0.466

88 (41.5)

99 (48.5)

0.15

66 (61.7)

69 (65.1)

0.605

36 (29.0)

94 (61.8)

< 0.0001

41 (28.3)

57 (37.7)

0.083

128 (91.4)

< 0.0001

< 0.0001

66 (45.2)

0.006

0.004

-   Excessive intakee

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

1 (0.7)

 

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 

0 (0.0)

  

1 (0.7)

  

 Sodiumg

-   Insufficient intaked

59 (41.5)

52 (36.6)

0.611

66 (31.1)

67 (32.8)

0.132

15 (14.0)

17 (16.0)

0.916

14 (11.3)

21 (13.8)

0.746

14 (9.7)

26 (17.2)

0.004

23 (16.4)

0.469

0.812

17 (11.6)

0.916

0.578

-   Excessive intakee

61 (43.0)

63 (44.4)

 

87 (41.1)

97 (47.6)

 

73 (68.2)

71 (67.0)

 

89 (71.8)

103 (67.8)

 

110 (75.9)

87 (57.6)

 

93 (66.4)

  

107 (73.3)

  
  1. Inadequate intake was defined as insufficient intake (for the macronutrients and vitamin B1 and B2) or, when an Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was available, as insufficient or excessive intake (for all other vitamins and minerals). Insufficient intake: participants who had intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) for the nutrient of interest. Excessive intake: participants who had an intake that exceeded the UL for the nutrient of interest. ND = No data on EAR or AI. NA = Chi-Square not applicable, as among both men and women 100% did not meet the EAR/AI requirements (for dietary fiber) or > 20% of the cells has expected count less than 5 and merging categories together (sufficient intake and excess intake) did not solve this ‘problem’ (for calcium)
  2. aP-values are based on Chi-square tests
  3. bP-values are based on Chi-square tests compared with adult men
  4. cP-values are based on Chi-square tests compared with adult (non-lactating) women
  5. dInsufficient intake was defined as intake of the nutrient of interest below the recommended EAR or AI
  6. eExcess intake as intake of the nutrient of interest above the UL
  7. f Data were calculated with Fisher’s Exact Test instead of Chi-square test
  8. gAdequate Intake (AI) used as DRI instead of EAR
  9. hNo Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) has been established