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Table 5 Differences in imbalance nutrient intake of macro- and micronutrients by sexes per age group

From: Are dietary intake and nutritional status influenced by gender? The pattern of dietary intake in Lao PDR: a developing country

 Toddlers (n = 284)Children (n = 416)Adolescents (n = 213)Adult (n = 276)Older adults (n = 296)Pregnant women (n = 140)Lactating women (n = 146)
 Boys (n = 142)Girls (n = 142) Boys (n = 212)Girls (n = 204) Boys (n = 107)Girls (n = 106) Men (n = 124)Women (n = 152) Men (n = 145)Women (n = 151)       
 n (%)n (%)pan (%)n (%)Pan (%)n (%)Pan (%)n (%)Pan (%)n (%)Pan (%)PbPcn (%)PbPc
Macronutrients
 Carbohydrates23 (16.2)29 (20.4)0.3577 (3.3)18 (8.8)0.0181 (0.9)3 (2.8)0.369f0 (0.0)1 (0.7)1.000f1 (0.7)4 (2.6)0.371f8 (5.7)0.008f0.016f16 (11.0)< 0.0001< 0.0001
 Protein4 (2.8)6 (4.2)0.521 (0.5)4 (2.0)0.208f5 (4.7)9 (8.5)0.26110 (8.1)27 (17.8)0.01920 (13.8)47 (31.1)< 0.000143 (31.9)< 0.00010.00660 (41.1)< 0.0001< 0.0001
 FatNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND
 Dietary fibreg142 (100)142 (100)NA211 (99.5)204 (100)1.000f107 (100)105 (99.1)0.314124 (100)152 (100)NA143 (98.6)149 (98.7)1.000f139 (99.3)1.000f0.479f146 (100)NANA
Vitamins
 A
-   nsufficient intaked89 (62.7)73 (51.4)0.073177 (83.5)164 (80.4)0.66104 (97.2)96 (90.6)0.043119 (96.0)139 (91.4)0.13127 (87.6)142 (94.0)0.054123 (87.9)0.0170.479141 (96.6)1.000f0.063
-   Excessive intakee16 (11.3)14 (9.9) 12 (5.7)12 (5.9) 0 (0.0)3 (2.8) 0 (0.0)5 (3.3) 5 (3.4)2 (1.3) 4 (2.9)  3 (2.1)  
B1 (Thiamin)h
-   Insufficient intaked97 (68.3)91 (64.1)0.452149 (70.3)146 (71.6)0.77385 (79.4)83 (78.3)0.839105 (84.7)106 (69.7)0.004115 (79.3)117 (77.5)0.703119 (85.0)0.9420.002128 (87.7)0.476< 0.0001
B2 (Riboflavin)h
-   Insufficient intaked71 (50.0)59 (41.5)0.153124 (58.5)123 (60.3)0.70888 (82.2)82 (77.4)0.375108 (87.1)122 (80.3)0.13124 (85.5)132 (87.4)0.633112 (80.0)0.1230.955132 (90.4)0.3880.014
B3 (Niacin)
-   Insufficient intaked89 (62.7)88 (62.0)0.955108 (51.0)112 (54.9)0.52762 (57.9)66 (62.3)0.5257 (46.0)88 (57.9)0.04860 (41.4)99 (65.6)< 0.0001118 (84.3)< 0.0001< 0.0001123 (84.2)< 0.0001< 0.0001
-   Excessive intakee14 (9.9)13 (9.2) 6 (2.8)8 (3.9) 5 (4.7)1 (0.9) 2 (1.6)0 (0.0) 2 (1.4)0 (0.0) 1 (0.7)  1 (0.7)  
C
-   Insufficient intaked80 (56.3)73 (51.4)0.405152 (71.7)149 (73.0)0.7677 (72.0)81 (76.4)0.458102 (82.3)105 (69.1)0.011102 (70.3)95 (62.9) 96 (68.6)  125 (85.6)  
-   Excessive intakee0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0.1760 (0.0)0.010.9250 (0.0)0.4520.001
Minerals
 Calciumg
-   Insufficient intaked106 (74.7)90 (63.4)0.04206 (97.2)197 (96.6)0.725104 (97.2)105 (99.1)0.621f119 (96.0)152 (100)NA142 (97.9)149 (98.7)NA138 (98.6)0.259f0.229f142 (97.3)0.7360.04
-   Excessive intakee3 (2.1)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 1 (0.8)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)1 (0.7) 0 (0.0)  0 (0.0)  
 Iron
-    Insufficient intaked53 (37.3)59 (41.5)0.46688 (41.5)99 (48.5)0.1566 (61.7)69 (65.1)0.60536 (29.0)94 (61.8)< 0.000141 (28.3)57 (37.7)0.083128 (91.4)< 0.0001< 0.000166 (45.2)0.0060.004
-   Excessive intakee0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)1 (0.7) 0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  1 (0.7)  
 Sodiumg
-   Insufficient intaked59 (41.5)52 (36.6)0.61166 (31.1)67 (32.8)0.13215 (14.0)17 (16.0)0.91614 (11.3)21 (13.8)0.74614 (9.7)26 (17.2)0.00423 (16.4)0.4690.81217 (11.6)0.9160.578
-   Excessive intakee61 (43.0)63 (44.4) 87 (41.1)97 (47.6) 73 (68.2)71 (67.0) 89 (71.8)103 (67.8) 110 (75.9)87 (57.6) 93 (66.4)  107 (73.3)  
  1. Inadequate intake was defined as insufficient intake (for the macronutrients and vitamin B1 and B2) or, when an Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was available, as insufficient or excessive intake (for all other vitamins and minerals). Insufficient intake: participants who had intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) for the nutrient of interest. Excessive intake: participants who had an intake that exceeded the UL for the nutrient of interest. ND = No data on EAR or AI. NA = Chi-Square not applicable, as among both men and women 100% did not meet the EAR/AI requirements (for dietary fiber) or > 20% of the cells has expected count less than 5 and merging categories together (sufficient intake and excess intake) did not solve this ‘problem’ (for calcium)
  2. aP-values are based on Chi-square tests
  3. bP-values are based on Chi-square tests compared with adult men
  4. cP-values are based on Chi-square tests compared with adult (non-lactating) women
  5. dInsufficient intake was defined as intake of the nutrient of interest below the recommended EAR or AI
  6. eExcess intake as intake of the nutrient of interest above the UL
  7. f Data were calculated with Fisher’s Exact Test instead of Chi-square test
  8. gAdequate Intake (AI) used as DRI instead of EAR
  9. hNo Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) has been established