Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of demographics, nutritional status and dietary intake in study population (n = 1771) by sex per age group

From: Are dietary intake and nutritional status influenced by gender? The pattern of dietary intake in Lao PDR: a developing country

 Toddlers (n = 284)Children (n = 416)Adolescents (n = 213)Adult (n = 276)Older adults (n = 296)PregnantLactating
Boys (n = 142)Girls (n = 142)Boys (n = 212)Girls (n = 204)Boys (n = 107)Girls (n = 106)Men (n = 124)Women (n = 152)Men (n = 145)Women (n = 151)(n = 140)(n = 146)
Demographics
Region; n (%)
- Northern-Lowland44 (31.0)49 (34.5)67 (31.6)75 (36.8)41 (38.3)30 (28.3)41 (33.1)59 (38.8)48 (33.1)47 (31.1)46 (32.9)51 (34.9)
-  Central-SH53 (37.3)44 (31.0)73 (34.4)69 (33.8)31 (29.0)34 (31.2)44 (35.4)46 (30.3)47 (32.4)50 (33.1)16 (32.9)48 (32.9)
-  Mekong Corridor45 (31.7)49 (34.5)72 (34.0)60 (29.4)35 (32.7)42 (39.6)39 (31.5)47 (30.9)50 (34.5)54 (35.8)48 (34.2)47 (32.2)
Residence; n (%)
-  Rural105 (73.9)103 (72.5)155 (73.1)153 (75.0)79 (73.8)75 (70.8)91 (73.4)110 (72.4)106 (73.1)110 (72.8)103 (73.6)106 (72.6)
-  Urban37 (26.1)39 (27.5)57 (26.9)51 (25.0)28 (26.2)31 (29.2)33 (26.6)42 (27.6)39 (26.9)41 (27.2)37 (26.4)40 (27.4)
Season; n (%)
-  Rainy72 (50.7)67 (47.2)113 (53.3)103 (50.5)50 (46.7)58 (42.7)63 (50.8)77 (50.7)71 (49.0)77 (51.0)66 (47.1)72 (4.3)
-  Dry70 (49.3)75 (52.8)99 (46.7)101 (49.5)57 (53.3)48 (45.3)61 (492)75 (49.3)74 (51.0)74 (49.0)74 (52.9)74 (50.7)
Anthropometrics
Age (years); mean (SD)1.8 (0.6)1.8 (0.6)5.1 (1.6)5.1 (1.7)12.4 (2.3)12.6 (2.4)37.8 (8.1)34.4 (8.8)62.1 (8.5)60.7 (8.1)26.7 (6.3)26.8 (5.8)
Weight (kg); mean(SD)10.5 (1.7)10.2 (2.0)16.8 (4.5)16.3 (4.6)36.1 (11.7)37.7 (10.0)60.9 (9.6)55.2 (10.0)57.2 (10.7)53.7 (10.8)57.3 (7.9)52.8 (8.7)
Height (cm); mean(SD)81.1 (6.6)80.7 (8.3)104.5 (11.8)104.0 (11.9)142.3 (13.8)142.8 (10.5)161.2 (5.4)152.0 (4.9)158.0 (6.0)149.2 (5.3)152.0 (5.1)152.5 (5.4)
BMI; n (%)
P-value0.14 0.69 0.01 146 0.08 0.02m0.61m
           0.01w0.06w
-  Underweight8 (5.6)7 (4.9)9 (4.2)11 (5.4)10 (9.3)2 (1.9)4 (3.2)13 (8.6)12 (8.3)13 (8.6)2 (1.4)11 (7.5)
-  Normal113 (79.6)118 (83.1)185 (87.3)178 (87.3)86 (80.4)93 (87.7)59 (47.6)59 (38.8)66 (45.5)48 (31.8)44 (31.4)77 (52.7)
-  Overweight18 (12.7)9 (6.3)13 (6.1)13 (6.4)2 (1.9)7 (6.6)26 (21.0)28 (18.4)27 (18.6)31 (20.5)38 (27.1)26 (17.8)
-  Obese3 (2.1)8 (5.6)5 (2.4)2 (1.0)9 (8.4)4 (3.8)35 (28.2)52 (34.2)40 (27.6)59 (39.1)56 (40.0)32 (21.9)
Dietary intake;
 median (IQR)
Energy (kcal)1040 (445)a958 (386)a1217 (425)a1079 (421)a1743 (681)1490 (526)1880 (650)1517 (510)1790 (638)1434 (568)1683 (571)1681 (636)
Macronutrients (g)            
-  Carbohydrates171 (77)a153 (67)a206 (73)a182 (71)a326 (131)264 (93)338 (130)276 (103)320 (120)268 (101)305 (109)312 (132)
-  Protein35 (17)a33 (15)a43 (19)a39 (18)a61 (29)51 (22)68 (28)56 (22)68 (30)51 (25)62 (16)63 (26)
-  Fat21 (20)21 (17)23 (21)19 (18)21 (19)20 (22)19 (15)16 (15)19 (15)13 (15)20 (18)17 (17)
-  Dietary fiber2.0 (2.8)1.7 (2.3)3.0 (2.7)2.5 (2.5)4.4 (3.2)4.4 (3.4)5.7 (3.5)6.3 (4.3)6.3 (4.4)6.1 (5.2)6.8 (5.3)5.9 (5.9)
  1. a Dietary intake presented as mean (SD) instead of median (IQR)
  2. mP-values are based on Chi-square tests compared to adult men; wP-values are based on Chi-square tests compared to adult women
  3. P-values are based on Chi-square tests