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Table 2 Comparison of the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior constructs score within and between the intervention and control groups among pregnant women in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

From: Effect of guided counseling on nutritional status of pregnant women in West Gojjam zone, Ethiopia: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

HBM constructsStudy periodHBM & TPB constructs scoreP
Intervention groupControl group
Perceived susceptibilityBaseline3.6(±1.9)3.9(±1.7)0.051
Endline4.9(±1.7)3.2(±1.8)< 0.001
P< 0.001< 0.001 
Perceived severityBaseline3.9(±1.5)4.1(±1.4)0.097
Endline4.2(±1.3)3.4(±1.5)< 0.001
P0.007< 0.001 
Perceived benefitsBaseline2.9(±1.7)3.1(±1.7)0.283
Endline4.3(±1.2)2.8(±1.6)< 0.001
P< 0.001< 0.005 
Perceived barriersBaseline1.1(±1.1)0.98 (±1.1)0.127
Endline1.3(±1.1)1.2(±1.0)0.131
P0.0260.014 
IntentionBaseline19.4(±4.1)19.7(±3.7)0.200
Endline22.2 (±3.2)18.8(±4.1)< 0.001
P< 0.001< 0.001 
AttitudeBaseline62.7(±8.5)63.8(±7.7)0.074
Endline71.3 (±6.1)61.4(±8.2)< 0.001
P< 0.001< 0.001 
Behavioral controlBaseline8.8(±2.5)8.7(±2.4)0.850
Endline10.6(±2.4)8.4(±2.6)< 0.001
P< 0.0010.015 
Subjective normsBaseline8.9(±2.8)9.1 (±2.8)0.391
Endline10.1 (±2.7)8.4(±2.7)< 0.001
P< 0.001< 0.001 
  1. HBM Health Belief Model, TPB Theory of planned behavior, P P-value