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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants by metabolic health status (number (%) or mean ± standard deviation or median ± interquartile range)

From: Metabolically healthy obese and metabolic syndrome of the lean: the importance of diet quality. Analysis of MAGNETIC cohort

VariablesTotal sampleMHMSP value
Sample size797565232
Sample percentage10070.929.1
Sociodemographic
 Age (years)27.9 ± 4.527.2 ± 4.529.4 ± 4.1< 0.0001
 Male sex (%)460 (57.7)268 (47.4)192 (82.8)< 0.0001
 Residence (%)
  village121 (15.2)80 (14.2)41 (17.7)0.179
  small town (< 20,000 inhabitants)89 (11.2)68 (12.0)21 (9.1)
  town (20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants)161 (20.2)107 (18.9)54 (23.3)
  city (> 100,000 inhabitants)426 (53.5)310 (54.9)116 (50.0)
 Education (%)
  primary/lower secondary53 (6.6)29 (5.1)24 (10.3)0.021
  upper secondary302 (37.9)213 (37.7)89 (38.4)
  higher442 (55.5)323 (57.2)119 (51.3)
 Financial situation
  average/below average598 (75.1)431 (76.4)167 (72.0)0.05
  above average198 (24.9)133 (23.6)65 (28.0)
Nutrition knowledge score (points)12.2 ± 3.912.5 ± 3.911.5 ± 4.00.0009
Lifestyle
 Physical activity at leisure
  low206 (25.8)134 (23.7)72 (31.0)0.087
  moderate366 (45.9)264 (46.7)102 (44.0)
  high225 (28.2)167 (29.6)58 (25.0)
 Current smoking (vs. non-smoking) (%)184 (23.3)120 (21.4)64 (27.8)0.053
Family health history
 Diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relatives (%)113 (14.2)73 (12.9)40 (17.2)0.112
 Premature CAD in 1st degree relatives (%)394 (49.4)260 (46.0)134 (57.8)0.003
Dietary
 pHDI (% points)21.0 ± 10.121.6 ± 9.919.7 ± 10.60.005
 nHDI (% points)17.5 ± 8.116.7 ± 7.819.4 ± 8.3< 0.0001
 Lowest adherence to DP (%)
  Prudent266 (33.4)179 (31.7)87 (37.5)0.113
  Western266 (33.4)213 (37.7)53 (22.8)< 0.0001
  Dairy, breakfast cereals & treats266 (33.4)176 (31.2)90 (38.8)0.809
 Moderate adherence to DP (%)
  Prudent266 (33.4)196 (34.7)70 (30.2)0.219
  Western266 (33.4)183 (32.4)83 (35.8)0.357
  Dairy, breakfast cereals & treats266 (33.4)196 (34.7)70 (30.2)0.219
 Highest adherence to DP (%)
  Prudent265 (33.2)190 (33.6)75 (32.3)0.7233
  Western265 (33.2)169 (29.9)96 (41.4)0.002
  Dairy, breakfast cereals & treats265 (33.2)193 (34.2)72 (31.1)0.395
Adiposity
 BMI (kg/m2)24.4 ± 4.423.0 ± 3.527.8 ± 4.6< 0.0001
 BMI by categories (kg/m2)
  normal weight21.6 ± 2.221.3 ± 2.222.9 ± 1.7< 0.0001
  overweight27.0 ± 1.326.9 ± 1.327.3 ± 1.40.01
  obesity33.4 ± 2.632.4 ± 2.533.7 ± 2.60.06
 BMI categories (%)
  normal weight481 (60.4)410 (72.6)71 (30.6)< 0.0001
  Overweight231 (29.0)136 (24.1)95 (40.9)
  Obesity84 (10.5)18 (3.2)66 (28.4)
 WHR0.84 ± 0.090.82 ± 0.090.90 ± 0.08< 0.0001
 WHR men0.89 ± 0.080.87 ± 0.080.91 ± 0.07< 0.0001
 WHR women0.78 ± 0.070.78 ± 0.070.83 ± 0.07< 0.0001
 Waist circumference men88.4 ± 9.085.1 ± 9.092.9 ± 11.6< 0.0001
 Waist circumference women74.2 ± 11.372.2 ± 9.089.3 ± 14.8< 0.0001
Metabolic health
 SBP (mmHg)126.7 ± 14.3122.8 ± 12.8135.6 ± 13.7< 0.0001
 DBP (mmHg)78.6 ± 10.876.4 ± 9.883.8 ± 11.2< 0.0001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.94 ± 1.044.65 ± 0.95.66 ± 1.13< 0.0001
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)2.96 ± 0.92.67 ± 0.83.68 ± 0.9< 0.0001
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)1.59 ± 0.451.70 ± 0.411.32 ± 0.40< 0.0001
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.20 ± 1.140.87 ± 0.371.99 ± 1.80< 0.0001
 Glucose (mmol/l)5.00 ± 0.464.89 ± 0.385.27 ± 0.53< 0.0001
 Metabolic abnormalities (%)
  Elevated SBP305 (39.9)142 (26.5)163 (71.2)< 0.0001
  Elevated DBP213 (27.9)99 (18.5)114 (49.8)< 0.0001
  Elevated total cholesterol279 (35.0)121 (21.4)158 (68.1)< 0.0001
  Elevated LDL-cholesterol237 (29.7)90 (15.9)147 (63.4)< 0.0001
  Lowered HDL-cholesterol62 (7.8)8 (1.4%)54 (23.3)< 0.0001
  Elevated triglycerides125 (15.7)16 (2.8)109 (47.0)< 0.0001
  Elevated glucose99 (12.4)21 (3.7)78 (33.6)< 0.0001