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Table 4 Cross-sectional associations of meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations with exceeding waist circumference recommendations a, having undiagnosed or diagnosed hypertension b or diabetes b, in seven low-and middle-income countries

From: Evaluation of sex differences in dietary behaviours and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors: a cross-sectional study of nationally representative surveys in seven low- and middle-income countries

 Waist circumference c (n = 20,784)Hypertension d (n = 22,907)Diabetes e (n = 16,643)
Percentage (95% CI) exceeding recommendationsPercentage (95% CI) undiagnosedPercentage (95% CI) diagnosedPercentage (95% CI) undiagnosedPercentage (95% CI) diagnosed
Overall
 Met F&Vf recommendations24.4 (22.5, 26.4)15.9 (13.8, 18.0)11.2 (10.2, 12.2)1.8 (0.7, 2.9)5.9 (4.5, 7.2)
 Did not meet F&V recommendations22.6 (22.3, 23.0)15.6 (15.3, 16.0)11.3 (11.1, 11.5)1.9 (1.8, 2.0)7.5 (7.4, 7.6)
p-value0.010.840.880.750.33
Male
 Met F&V recommendations13.1 (6.6, 19.6)18.9 (17.0, 20.9)10.6 (9.4, 11.7)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)6.5 (3.1, 9.9)
 Did not meet F&V recommendations9.5 (6.6, 12.4)19.3 (17.4, 21.1)10.7 (9.5, 12.0)2.1 (1.5, 2.7)8.4 (7.5, 9.4)
Female
 Met F&V recommendations39.8 (32.5, 47.1)13.1 (10.7, 15.4)11.6 (10.5, 12.8)1.6 (0.2, 3.3)5.6 (4.2, 6.9)
 Did not meet F&V recommendations40.6 (35.9, 45.3)12.1 (11.0, 13.2)11.7 (11.0, 12.4)1.7 (1.5, 2.0)7.1 (6.5, 7.6)
p-value for sex interaction0.060.170.790.970.90
  1. aModel adjusted for type of fat and oil used in cooking, age, education, working status, physical activity, alcohol use and tobacco use
  2. bModel adjusted for type of fat and oil used in cooking, age, education, working status, physical activity, alcohol use, tobacco use and waist circumference
  3. c Definition of high waist circumference, waist ≥102 cm for males and waist ≥88 cm for females
  4. d Hypertension was defined as an average systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement > 140 mmHg, or their average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurement > 90 mmHg, or they reported taking medication for hypertension. Self-reported diagnosed hypertension were those who met the criteria for hypertension and also reported a diagnosis of hypertension. Undiagnosed individuals were those who had a high SBP (> 140 mmHg) or a high DBP (> 90 mmHg), did not report taking hypertension medication, and did not report a hypertension diagnosis
  5. e Diabetes was defined as having an average fasting blood glucose (FBG) level ≥ 7 mmol/L, or having a random blood glucose (RBG) level of ≥11.1 mmol/L or on medication for diabetes. Individuals with self-reported diagnosed diabetes met the criteria for diabetes and also reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Undiagnosed individuals were those who had a high FBG (≥7 mmol/L) or a high RBG (≥11.1 mmol/L), did not report taking diabetes medication, and did not report a diabetes diagnosis
  6. f “F&V” – Fruit and vegetable intake, categorised into meeting or not meeting fruit and vegetable recommendations of 400 g/day