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Table 2 Self-reported salt use behaviour, fruit and vegetable consumption and the type of fat and oil used in cooking, in seven low-and middle-income countries (n = 24,332), by sex a

From: Evaluation of sex differences in dietary behaviours and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors: a cross-sectional study of nationally representative surveys in seven low- and middle-income countries

 Overall
Percentage (95% CI)
Male
Percentage (95% CI)
Female
Percentage (95% CI)
p-value*
Salt use behaviour
 Positive salt behaviour (> 50%)29.27 (26.75, 31.93)27.19 (24.60, 29.95)31.34 (28.61, 34.21)< 0.001
 Specific salt behaviours
  Add salt to meal< 0.001
   Always8.44 (7.64, 9.32)9.39 (8.26, 10.66)7.50 (6.74, 8.33) 
   Often5.28 (4.76, 5.85)5.27 (4.62, 6.01)5.28 (4.69, 5.95)
   Sometimes17.35 (16.45, 18.28)18.09 (16.86, 19.39)16.61 (15.60, 17.67)
   Rarely15.83 (14.58, 17.16)16.17 (14.64, 17.82)15.49 (14.16, 16.93)
   Never53.10 (50.92, 55.27)51.08 (48.69, 53.47)55.11 (52.76, 57.44)
  Add salt during cooking0.26
   Always63.78 (61.88, 65.65)63.48 (61.28, 65.62)64.09 (62.07, 66.06) 
   Often7.62 (6.95, 8.35)7.58 (6.72, 8.53)7.67 (6.96, 8.45)
   Sometimes11.34 (10.50, 12.24)11.74 (10.65, 12.92)10.95 (10.05, 11.92)
   Rarely7.59 (6.91, 8.32)7.21 (6.35, 8.18)7.95 (7.20, 8.78)
   Never9.67 (8.75, 10.67)10.00 (8.84, 11.29)9.34 (8.39, 10.38)
  Limit Processed foods to reduce salt
   Yes43.3 (40.94, 45.70)42.35 (39.78, 44.96)44.25 (41.67, 46.87)0.07
  Look at salt content on food labels
   Yes18.03 (16.71, 19.42)16.96 (15.51, 18.51)19.09 (17.56, 20.72)0.01
  Buy low salt alternatives
   Yes18.16 (16.69, 19.72)16.81 (15.17, 18.59)19.49 (17.89, 21.21)< 0.001
  Use other spices
   Yes32.94 (29.72, 36.34)31.24 (28.16, 34.48)34.64 (31.00, 38.64)< 0.001
  Avoid eating foods prepared outside of home
   Yes34.05 (31.92, 36.24)31.34 (29.12, 33.65)36.74 (34.36, 39.19)< 0.001
Fruit and vegetable consumption
 Met WHO guidelines (400 g per day)14.01 (12.80, 15.32)14.81 (13.23, 16.55)13.21 (12.09, 14.43)0.02
Fat and oil used in cooking0.45
 Vegetable93.39 (92.20, 94.40)92.95 (91.48, 94.19)93.81 (92.69, 94.77) 
 Animal2.49 (2.02, 2.06)2.62 (2.00, 3.41)2.36 (1.92, 2.89)
 Other2.98 (2.14, 4.14)3.17 (2.15, 4.65)2.78 (2.04, 3.78)
 None in particular0.47 (0.36, 0.61)0.49 (0.33, 0.71)0.45 (0.33, 0.62)
 None0.69 (0.51, 0.91)0.77 (0.51, 0.12)0.60 (0.45, 0.80)
  1. *p-value for difference between males and females
  2. a Percent accounts for sampling design with survey weights re-scaled by the survey’s sample size such that all countries contribute equally to estimates. Differences between sexes tested using Pearson’s chi-squared test