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Table 1 Characteristics of individuals with data on dietary behaviours (n = 24,332) in seven low- and middle- income countries, overall and by sex a

From: Evaluation of sex differences in dietary behaviours and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors: a cross-sectional study of nationally representative surveys in seven low- and middle-income countries

 Overall (95% CI)Male (95% CI)Female (95% CI)p-value*
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Sex (%)
  Males49.89 (48.81. 50.96) 
  Females50.11 (49.04, 51.18) 
 Age (mean, years)36.33 (36.03, 36.63)36.24 (35.81, 36.66)36.42 (36.08, 36.76)0.47
 Educational Attainment (%)
  No formal schooling14.79 (13.48, 16.20)11.29 (9.96, 12.77)18.26 (16.64, 20.01)< 0.001
  Primary school30.51 (29.18, 31.88)32.25 (30.42, 34.14)28.78 (27.53, 30.07)
  Secondary school or above54.70 (53.23, 56.17)56.46 (54.45, 58.45)52.95 (51.37, 54.53)
 Working (%)54.18 (52.50, 55.83)68.74 (66.98, 70.45)39.70 (37.29, 42.16)< 0.001
Behavioural characteristics
 Physical Activity (%)
  Achieving 600 MET a week84.50 (82.61, 86.21)88.92 (87.62, 90.11)80.10 (77.30, 82.63)< 0.001
 Alcohol consumption
  Mean number of drinks per week3.84 (3.45, 4.24)6.47 (5.80, 7.15)1.23 (1.00, 1.45)< 0.001
 Consuming alcohol during a week (%)
  No alcohol use reported70.65 (69.26, 71.99)56.15 (54.29, 57.99)85.06 (83.62, 86.40)< 0.001
  Consume one alcoholic drink or more29.35 (28.01, 30.74)43.85 (42.01, 45.71)14.94 (13.60, 16.38)
 Tobacco use, smoke or smokeless (%)
  No tobacco use69.69 (68.31, 71.04)51.51 (49.54, 53.49)87.79 (86.84, 88.68)< 0.001
  Past use of tobacco19.29 (18.13, 20.50)32.15 (30.300, 34.05)6.48 (5.83, 7.19)
  Current use of tobacco11.02 (10.34, 11.74)16.33 (15.21, 17.53)5.73 (5.18, 6.33)
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Waist circumference
  Mean waist circumference85.22 (84.76, 85.68)84.45 (83.98, 84.92)86.01 (85.34, 86.68)< 0.001
  High waist circumference (%) b26.01 (24.96, 27.08)11.02 (10.20, 11.89)41.35 (39.73, 43.00)< 0.001
 Blood pressure measures
  Mean systolic blood pressure125.83 (125.47, 126.19)128.47 (127.96, 128.97)123.21 (122.76, 123.67)< 0.001
  Mean diastolic blood pressure79.76 (79.39, 80.13)79.90 (79.39, 80.41)79.62 (79.26, 79.98)0.26
  Hypertension (%) c26.69 (25.82, 27.58)27.44 (26.12, 28.81)25.95 (25.01, 26.92)0.05
   Self-reported diagnosed hypertension11.26 (10.76, 11.79)8.74 (8.10, 9.43)13.77 (13.06, 14.51)< 0.001
   Undiagnosed hypertension15.43 (14.71, 16.18)18.70 (17.54, 19.92)12.18 (11.49. 12.91)
 Blood glucose measures
  Mean blood glucose measure4.83 (4.79, 4.87)4.79 (4.74, 4.83)4.87 (4.82, 4.93)0.006
  Diabetes (%) d5.82 (5.23, 6.47)4.94 (4.30, 5.66)6.66 (5.92, 7.49)< 0.001
   Self-reported diagnosed diabetes3.38 (2.86, 3.99)2.59 (2.10, 3.19)4.13 (3.45, 4.93)< 0.001
   Undiagnosed diabetes1.79 (1.53, 2.10)1.72 (1.35, 2.18)1.86 (1.54, 2.25)
  1. a Percentages and means accounts for sampling design with survey weights re-scaled by the survey’s sample size such that all countries contribute equally to estimates. Differences between sexes tested using Pearson’s chi-squared test for categorical variables and linear regression analysis for continuous variables
  2. bDefinition of high waist circumference, waist ≥102 cm for males and waist ≥88 cm for females
  3. c Hypertension was defined as an average systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement > 140 mmHg, or their average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurement > 90 mmHg, or they reported taking medication for hypertension. Self-reported diagnosed hypertension were those who met the criteria for hypertension and also reported a diagnosis of hypertension. Undiagnosed individuals were those who had a high SBP (> 140 mmHg) or a high DBP (> 90 mmHg), did not report taking hypertension medication, and did not report a hypertension diagnosis
  4. d Diabetes was defined as having an average fasting blood glucose (FBG) level ≥ 7 mmol/L, or having a random blood glucose (RBG) level of ≥11.1 mmol/L or on medication for diabetes. Individuals with self-reported diagnosed diabetes met the criteria for diabetes and also reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Undiagnosed individuals were those who had a high FBG (≥7 mmol/L) or a high RBG (≥11.1 mmol/L), did not report taking diabetes medication, and did not report a diabetes diagnosis
  5. *p-value for difference between males and females