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Table 1 Characteristics of the food groups used in the dietary pattern analysis

From: Association between egg consumption and elevated fasting glucose prevalence in relation to dietary patterns in selected group of Polish adults

Food groupProducts
Milk and low-fat dairyLow-fat milk, 1–2% fat [1], milk, 3.2% fat [2], buttermilk, 0.5% fat [3], cocoa with milk [4], cottage cheese [6], quark, fresh cheese [10], low-fat yoghurt [11], yogurt, 2–8% fat [12], kefir [13]
High-fat cheese and creamFeta cheese [5], hard cheese [7], cheese, “fromage” naturel [8], cheese, Edam type, fat [9], cream, 12% fat [14], cream, 18% fat [15]
FatsMargarine, soft [16], butter [18], lard [19], Finea/Masmix [20], mayonnaise [148]
FruitsApple [21], banana [22], grapefruit [23], grapes [24], tangerine [25], strawberries [26], kiwi fruit [27], lemon [28], orange [29], peach [30], pear [31], plum [32], raspberries [33]
VegetablesBeans, white (boiled) [34], beets, cooked [35], broccoli, green [36], cabbage, red (raw) [37], cabbage, Shantung [38], cabbage, white (raw) [39], cabbage, white (boiled) [40], carrot (fresh) [41], carrot (boiled) [42], cauliflower (raw) [43], cauliflower (boiled with butter) [44], chives [45], cucumber (raw) [46], garlic (raw) [47], lettuce [48], mushroom (fried) [49], onion (raw) [50], parsley, leaves [51], horseradish [52], pepper (cooked) [53], pepper, red (raw) [54], radish [58], tomato (raw) [59], tomato (cooked) [60], tomato sauce [61], spinach (cooked) [62], squash, summer (cooked) [63], string beans (boiled) [64], sweet corn (canned, drained) [65], peas green (canned, drained) [66], shantung cabbage, salad with mayonnaise [115], sauerkraut salad [116], lettuce with sour cream salad [118]
ChipsPotato (French fried) [55]
PotatoesPotato (boiled) [56], potato (mashed) [57]
Red meatBeef steaks [68], pork, belly (no bone, boiled) [79], pork cutlets (breaded, fried) [81], organ meat (liver, tongue, heart) [89], beef and pork minced cutlets (fried) [100]
Processed red/mixed meatBeef, ham (cooked) [69], Frankfurter/Hotdog [76], luncheon meat (pork) [77], pork ham [80] sausage Slaska (pork, cooked) [82], sausage Krakowska (pork and beef) [83], sausage Biala (pork) [84], sausage Szynkowa (turkey) [87], Head Cheese, white and black [88] chicken pate (canned) [104]
Low-fat poultryChicken without skin (cooked/fried) [73], turkey (roasted) [86]
High-fat/processed poultryChicken fillets (breaded, fried) [70], chicken ham [71], chicken with skin (cooked/fried) [72], turkey, ham [85]
FishCod fillets (breaded and fried) [74], herring in cream [75], mackerel (smoked) [78]
Unrefined grainsRye, brown bread [92], wheat-rye bread with sunflower seeds [96], pasta (cooked) [98], buckwheat groats (boiled) [102], pearl barley groats (boiled) [105], soup, milk with rolled oats [109]
Refined grainsWheat bread [90], rice (boiled) [91], wheat rolls (kajzerki) [93], wheat rolls (wroclawskie) [94], wheat-rye bread/white bread [95], cold cereal (cornflakes) [97]
Mixed dishesBaked beans with meat [99], cabbage leaves, stuffed [103], Polish dumplings, with meat [113], sauerkraut with sausage and meat (bigos, stewed) [114], dumplings with potato filling (Ruskie, boiled) [117], vegetable salad (cooked with mayonnaise) [119]
SoupsBroth [101], soup with vegetables [106], soup, Krupnik with pearl barley groats [107], soup, Zurek sour rye [108], soup, tomato [110], soup, sauerkraut [111], soup, white bean [112]
JuicesOrange juice [120], carrot juice [122], apple juice [123], grapefruit juice [124], blackcurrant juice [125], multifruit juice from Polish fruits [126], multifruit juice from exotic fruits [127]
BeveragesRaspberry juice [121], fruits drink [128], soft drink (regular) [129], soft drink (low calorie) [130]
AlcoholBeer [134], red wine [135], vodka [136]
SweetsIce cream [17], milk chocolate [137], bitter chocolate [138], biscuits [139], yeast cake [140], short-cake [141], gingerbread cake [142], sponge cake [143], cheesecake (Krakowski) [144], halva with vanilla [146], drops [147], sweets [151]
Sugar and honeyHoney [145], sugar [152]
Nuts, seeds and raisinsNuts [149], raisins, dried [150], seeds [153], walnuts [154]
  1. Number in bracket refers to the item number in the Food Frequency Questionnaire (available in Additional file 2)