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Table 6 Prospective logistic regression analyses for association between food/nutrient intake and GHQ-12 score*

From: Associations between diet and mental health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire: cross-sectional and prospective analyses from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study

 Participants with GHQ score ≥ 4 (n)Model 1 (OR, 95% CI)aP-trendModel 2 (OR, 95% CI)bP-trend
Food groups
 FishQ1 (low)2111(Ref.)0.7571(Ref.)0.886
Q22030.94(0.75–1.16) 0.94(0.75–1.16) 
Q31940.97(0.78–1.21) 0.98(0.79–1.22) 
Q4 (high)1750.95(0.75–1.19) 0.97(0.77–1.22) 
 Meat and chickenQ1 (low)1861(Ref.)0.3451(Ref.)0.332
Q21910.84(0.67–1.06) 0.87(0.69–1.10) 
Q31830.76(0.60–0.96) 0.78(0.61–0.98) 
Q4 (high)2230.86(0.68–1.08) 0.87(0.69–1.09) 
 Dairy productsQ1 (low)2081(Ref.)0.0021(Ref.)0.002
Q22161.04(0.84–1.29) 1.04(0.83–1.29) 
Q31760.75(0.60–0.94) 0.74(0.59–0.93) 
Q4 (high)1830.75(0.59–0.94) 0.75(0.59–0.95) 
 VegetablesQ1 (low)1731(Ref.)0.3621(Ref.)0.291
Q22121.17(0.93–1.47) 1.20(0.95–1.50) 
Q31830.96(0.76–1.22) 0.98(0.77–1.25) 
Q4 (high)2151.18(0.92–1.51) 1.21(0.95–1.55) 
Nutrients
 ProteinQ1 (low)2101(Ref.)0.0821(Ref.)0.128
Q21840.77(0.62–0.96) 0.78(0.62–0.98) 
Q31810.69(0.55–0.87) 0.69(0.55–0.88) 
Q4 (high)2080.81(0.64–1.02) 0.83(0.65–1.05) 
 CarbohydrateQ1 (low)2031(Ref.)0.3071(Ref.)0.499
Q22051.07(0.86–1.33) 1.07(0.85–1.34) 
Q31941.11(0.89–1.39) 1.10(0.86–1.40) 
Q4 (high)1811.12(0.88–1.42) 1.09(0.83–1.43) 
 FatQ1 (low)1751(Ref.)0.9931(Ref.)0.601
Q21970.98(0.78–1.24) 1.01(0.80–1.28) 
Q31850.79(0.62–1.01) 0.82(0.64–1.06) 
Q4 (high)2260.92(0.72–1.19) 0.96(0.74–1.25) 
 CalciumQ1 (low)2161(Ref.)0.0051(Ref.)0.019
Q21880.77(0.62–0.97) 0.79(0.63–0.99) 
Q31910.73(0.58–0.93) 0.75(0.59–0.96) 
Q4 (high)1880.68(0.54–0.88) 0.71(0.55–0.92) 
 Vitamin B1Q1 (low)1771(Ref.)0.3951(Ref.)0.878
Q21920.92(0.73–1.17) 0.99(0.77–1.28) 
Q31990.83(0.65–1.07) 0.91(0.68–1.22) 
Q4 (high)2150.89(0.68–1.16) 1.02(0.74–1.42) 
 Vitamin B2Q1 (low)2131(Ref.)0.0011(Ref.)0.007
Q21980.83(0.66–1.03) 0.84(0.67–1.05) 
Q31880.72(0.57–0.91) 0.73(0.58–0.94) 
Q4 (high)1840.68(0.53–0.87) 0.70(0.54–0.91) 
 Vitamin DQ1 (low)2061(Ref.)0.6071(Ref.)0.832
Q22201.00(0.81–1.25) 1.03(0.83–1.28) 
Q31780.87(0.69–1.09) 0.88(0.70–1.11) 
Q4 (high)1790.97(0.77–1.23) 1.01(0.80–1.28) 
 CaroteneQ1 (low)1811(Ref.)0.8631(Ref.)0.607
Q22101.06(0.85–1.33) 1.12(0.89–1.41) 
Q31780.84(0.66–1.07) 0.88(0.69–1.13) 
Q4 (high)2141.06(0.82–1.36) 1.12(0.86–1.44) 
 SFAQ1 (low)1891(Ref.)0.0011(Ref.)0.003
Q22020.89(0.71–1.12) 0.90(0.71–1.14) 
Q31950.73(0.57–0.94) 0.76(0.59–0.98) 
Q4 (high)1970.65(0.50–0.85) 0.68(0.51–0.89) 
 MUFAQ1 (low)1711(Ref.)0.9101(Ref.)0.688
Q21850.94(0.74–1.19) 0.98(0.77–1.25) 
Q32090.98(0.77–1.25) 1.05(0.82–1.35) 
Q4 (high)2180.96(0.76–1.23) 1.04(0.80–1.34) 
 n-6 PUFAQ1 (low)1681(Ref.)0.6241(Ref.)0.361
Q21870.98(0.77–1.23) 1.01(0.80–1.29) 
Q32040.99(0.78–1.25) 1.03(0.81–1.32) 
Q4 (high)2241.05(0.82–1.33) 1.11(0.87–1.43) 
 n-3 PUFAQ1 (low)1741(Ref.)0.2681(Ref.)0.093
Q21981.08(0.86–1.36) 1.14(0.90–1.44) 
Q31920.99(0.79–1.26) 1.06(0.83–1.35) 
Q4 (high)2191.16(0.92–1.47) 1.26(0.99–1.62) 
 n-3 HUFAQ1 (low)2121(Ref.)0.8791(Ref.)0.853
Q22090.92(0.74–1.15) 0.95(0.76–1.19) 
Q31750.83(0.66–1.04) 0.85(0.67–1.06) 
Q4 (high)1870.99(0.78–1.24) 1.04(0.82–1.31) 
  1. All variables (food and nutrient intakes and covariates) were measured at baseline
  2. GHQ General Health Questionnaire, CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, Q1–Q4 Quartiles 1–4, SFA Saturated fatty acids, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids, HUFA Highly-polyunsaturated fatty acids
  3. Odds ratios shown by quartile of intake (n = 4701)
  4. *Excludes those with a GHQ-12 score ≥ 4 at baseline
  5. aModel 1: adjusted for sex, age, and area
  6. bModel 2: adjusted for sex, age, area, employment, smoking, drinking, sleeping time, leisure time exercise, eating breakfast, and total energy