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Table 5 Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses for the association between food/nutrient intake and GHQ-12 score

From: Associations between diet and mental health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire: cross-sectional and prospective analyses from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study

 Participants with GHQ score ≥ 4 (n)Model 1 (OR, 95% CI)aP-trendModel 2 (OR, 95% CI)bP-trend
Food groups
 FishQ1 (low)7071(Ref.)0.0641(Ref.)0.070
Q27010.98(0.86–1.11) 0.97(0.85–1.10) 
Q35980.84(0.74–0.96) 0.84(0.73–0.96) 
Q4 (high)5950.91(0.79–1.04) 0.90(0.79–1.04) 
 Meat and chickenQ1 (low)5641(Ref.)0.8761(Ref.)0.977
Q26330.99(0.86–1.13) 0.99(0.87–1.14) 
Q36831.01(0.88–1.16) 1.01(0.88–1.16) 
Q4 (high)7211.00(0.87–1.15) 1.00(0.87–1.15) 
 Dairy productsQ1 (low)6521(Ref.)0.0111(Ref.)0.059
Q26470.97(0.85–1.11) 0.99(0.87–1.14) 
Q36610.97(0.85–1.11) 1.00(0.87–1.14) 
Q4 (high)6410.84(0.74–0.96) 0.88(0.77–1.01) 
 VegetablesQ1 (low)6601(Ref.)0.0261(Ref.)0.045
Q26350.84(0.74–0.96) 0.86(0.75–0.98) 
Q36620.85(0.74–0.98) 0.87(0.75–1.00) 
Q4 (high)6440.82(0.71–0.95) 0.83(0.72–0.96) 
Nutrients
 ProteinQ1 (low)6281(Ref.)0.0021(Ref.)0.003
Q26620.95(0.83–1.09) 0.94(0.82–1.07) 
Q36560.85(0.74–0.97) 0.84(0.73–0.97) 
Q4 (high)6550.82(0.71–0.94) 0.82(0.71–0.95) 
 CarbohydrateQ1 (low)5421(Ref.)0.5711(Ref.)0.996
Q26210.88(0.78–1.00) 0.92(0.80–1.05) 
Q36880.85(0.75–0.97) 0.88(0.76–1.01) 
Q4 (high)7501.00(0.87–1.14) 1.04(0.88–1.22) 
 FatQ1 (low)7461(Ref.)0.6411(Ref.)0.980
Q26631.02(0.88–1.17) 0.99(0.86–1.15) 
Q35901.01(0.88–1.17) 1.00(0.86–1.16) 
Q4 (high)6021.04(0.89–1.21) 1.00(0.85–1.17) 
 CalciumQ1 (low)6301(Ref.)0.0051(Ref.)0.006
Q26680.98(0.86–1.12) 0.94(0.82–1.08) 
Q36480.87(0.76–1.00) 0.85(0.74–0.99) 
Q4 (high)6550.83(0.72–0.96) 0.82(0.70–0.95) 
 Vitamin B1Q1 (low)5251(Ref.)0.4301(Ref.)0.785
Q26421.09(0.95–1.25) 1.07(0.92–1.24) 
Q37061.10(0.94–1.27) 1.05(0.88–1.24) 
Q4 (high)7281.08(0.93–1.26) 1.00(0.82–1.22) 
 Vitamin B2Q1 (low)6331(Ref.)0.1381(Ref.)0.098
Q26250.91(0.80–1.04) 0.90(0.79–1.04) 
Q36930.99(0.86–1.13) 0.98(0.84–1.13) 
Q4 (high)6500.87(0.76–1.01) 0.85(0.73–1.00) 
 Vitamin DQ1 (low)6941(Ref.)0.0081(Ref.)0.009
Q27190.98(0.86–1.12) 0.95(0.84–1.09) 
Q36060.84(0.73–0.96) 0.83(0.72–0.95) 
Q4 (high)5820.86(0.75–0.99) 0.85(0.74–0.98) 
 CaroteneQ1 (low)6511(Ref.)0.0101(Ref.)0.015
Q26540.87(0.76–0.99) 0.86(0.75–0.99) 
Q36400.78(0.68–0.90) 0.79(0.68–0.91) 
Q4 (high)6560.81(0.70–0.93) 0.80(0.69–0.94) 
 SFAQ1 (low)5631(Ref.)0.1801(Ref.)0.097
Q26431.00(0.87–1.15) 0.97(0.84–1.12) 
Q36720.92(0.79–1.07) 0.88(0.76–1.03) 
Q4 (high)7220.92(0.78–1.07) 0.88(0.75–1.04) 
 MUFAQ1 (low)5181(Ref.)0.0011(Ref.)0.019
Q26351.12(0.97–1.29) 1.11(0.96–1.28) 
Q36781.11(0.96–1.28) 1.10(0.95–1.28) 
Q4 (high)7701.28(1.10–1.48) 1.22(1.04–1.42) 
 n-6 PUFAQ1 (low)5461(Ref.)0.0401(Ref.)0.130
Q26441.07(0.93–1.22) 1.04(0.91–1.20) 
Q36601.02(0.88–1.17) 1.00(0.87–1.16) 
Q4 (high)7511.17(1.02–1.35) 1.13(0.97–1.31) 
 n-3 PUFAQ1 (low)6141(Ref.)0.1191(Ref.)0.434
Q26000.85(0.74–0.97) 0.84(0.73–0.96) 
Q36680.95(0.83–1.09) 0.91(0.79–1.05) 
Q4 (high)7191.05(0.92–1.21) 1.00(0.86–1.16) 
 n-3 HUFAQ1 (low)6871(Ref.)0.0201(Ref.)0.018
Q27130.96(0.85–1.10) 0.93(0.81–1.06) 
Q36160.88(0.77–1.01) 0.87(0.76–1.00) 
Q4 (high)5850.86(0.75–0.99) 0.85(0.73–0.98) 
  1. GHQ General Health Questionnaire, CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, Q1–Q4 Quartiles 1–4, SFA Saturated fatty acids, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids, HUFA Highly-polyunsaturated fatty acids
  2. Odds ratios shown by quartile of intake (n = 9298)
  3. aModel 1: adjusted for sex, age, and area
  4. bModel 2: adjusted for sex, age, area, employment, smoking, drinking, sleeping time, leisure time exercise, eating breakfast, and total energy