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Table 4 Daily intake of food groups and nutrients at baseline among participants at follow-up (n = 4701)

From: Associations between diet and mental health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire: cross-sectional and prospective analyses from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study

Continuous variablesParticipants with a GHQ score ≥ 4Participants with a GHQ score < 4 
MeanSDMeanSDPa
Food groups (g)
 Fish49.931.050.925.80.009
 Meat and chicken38.925.336.921.30.080
 Dairy products125.3109.1132.2107.20.023
 Vegetables141.978.2138.579.40.136
Nutrients
 Energy (kcal)171535017273270.193
 Protein (g)53.512.053.510.30.546
 Fat (g)45.011.843.810.60.013
 Carbohydrate (g)24164244610.131
 Calcium (mg)5211485321450.038
 Vitamin B1 (mg)0.6560.0980.6510.0830.232
 Vitamin B2 (mg)1.100.251.120.250.006
 Vitamin D (μg)7.223.607.413.150.019
 Carotene (μg)32571394319713510.244
 Saturated fatty acids (g)11.483.0111.432.690.997
 Monounsaturated fatty acids (g)16.584.1616.053.760.001
 n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (g)11.323.0310.902.83< 0.001
 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (g)2.290.612.240.540.060
 n-3 highly-polyunsaturated fatty acids (g)0.7140.3640.7300.3140.032
  1. GHQ General Health Questionnaire, SD Standard deviation. aFood groups: Mann-Whitney test; nutrients: t-test after logarithmic transformation