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Table 2 Participants’ (baseline) characteristics at follow-up (n = 4701)

From: Associations between diet and mental health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire: cross-sectional and prospective analyses from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study

 Participants with a GHQ score ≥4Participants with a GHQ score <4P a
Categorical variablesn%n% 
 Number of participants783 3918  
 Area (Shizuoka)43355.3217355.50.934
 Sex (women)43255.2180546.1< 0.001
 Current worker60977.8291874.50.051
Smoking    0.047
 Never49663.3228558.3 
 Former18623.8112328.7 
 Current < 20 cigarettes/day476.02666.8 
 Current 20–39 cigarettes/day506.42295.8 
 Current ≥40 cigarettes/day40.5150.4 
Drinking    0.21
 Never34944.6157540.2 
 Former91.1421.1 
 Current < 150 g/week28336.1149838.2 
 Current 150–300 g/week8711.147512.1 
 Current ≥300 g/week557.03288.4 
Continuous variablesMeanSDMeanSD 
 Age (years)50.29.154.09.1< 0.001
 Sleeping time (h/day)6.50.96.70.9< 0.001
 Leisure-time exercise (METs ▪ h/day)1.82.52.23.0< 0.001
 Eating breakfast (times/week)6.51.36.61.30.168
  1. GHQ General Health Questionnaire, METs Metabolic equivalents, SD Standard deviation
  2. aCategorical variables: χ2 test; continuous variables: t-test