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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at baseline (n = 9298)

From: Associations between diet and mental health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire: cross-sectional and prospective analyses from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study

 Participants with a GHQ score ≥ 4Participants with a GHQ score < 4P a
Categorical variablesn%n% 
 Number of participants2601 6697  
 Area (Shizuoka)108441.7357853.4< 0.001
 Sex (women)154359.3322748.2< 0.001
 Current worker199676.7498774.50.023
Smoking    0.002
 Never162362.4388958.1 
 Former61923.8181227.1 
 Current < 20 cigarettes/day1786.84967.4 
 Current 20–39 cigarettes/day1616.24626.9 
 Current ≥40 cigarettes/day200.8380.6 
Drinking    0.001
 Never107341.3272040.6 
 Former491.9821.2 
 Current < 150 g/week102639.4250037.3 
 Current 150–300 g/week26010.081212.1 
 Current ≥300 g/week1937.45838.7 
Continuous variablesMeanSDMeanSD 
 Age (years)50.19.152.99.5< 0.001
 Sleeping time (h/day)6.40.96.60.9< 0.001
 Leisure-time exercise (METs • h/day)1.62.62.02.9< 0.001
 Eating breakfast (times/week)6.31.66.51.4< 0.001
  1. GHQ General Health Questionnaire, METs Metabolic equivalents, SD Standard deviation
  2. aCategorical variables: χ2 test; continuous variables: t-test