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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted ratios for psychological disorders across quartiles low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score

From: Adherence to low carbohydrate diet and prevalence of psychological disorders in adults

 Quartiles of LCD score
1 (n = 887)2 (n = 816)3 (n = 803)4 (n = 856)P trend
OROROROR
LCD score range< 1010-1616-23> 23 
Depression
 Crude1.000.95(0.81–1.12)1.14(0.98–1.31)1.09(0.94–1.26)0.06
 Model I1.000.93(0.78–1.10)1.10(0.93–1.29)1.12(0.95–1.31)0.05
 Model II1.001.00(0.82–1.20)1.12(0.93–1.33)1.13(0.94–1.33)0.11
 Model III1.001.01(0.83–1.21)1.13(0.94–1.36)1.18(0.96–1.41)0.06
 Model VI1.001.00(0.82–1.21)1.13(0.92–1.36)1.15(0.93–1.39)0.11
Anxiety
 Crude1.000.77(0.59–0.99)0.97(0.77–1.23)0.88(0.69–1.11)0.64
 Model I1.000.72(0.55–.094)0.93(0.72–1.20)0.90(0.69–1.15)0.79
 Model II1.000.73(0.54–0.98)0.87(0.65–1.16)0.87(0.65–1.15)0.52
 Model III1.000.71(0.52–0.96)0.83(0.61–1.12)0.80(0.59–1.11)0.29
 Model VI1.000.70(0.51–0.96)0.85(0.62–1.15)0.82(0.59–1.14)0.40
Psychological distress
 Crude1.000.96(0.81–1.14)1.04(0.87–1.23)0.89(0.74–1.07)0.38
 Model I1.000.93(0.77–1.12)1.05(0.87–1.25)0.93(0.76–1.12)0.78
 Model II1.001.03(0.84–1.26)1.05(0.85–1.28)0.98(0.79–1.19)0.88
 Model III1.001.01(0.82–1.23)1.01(0.80–1.24)0.92(0.73–1.15)0.51
 Model VI1.001.01(0.81–1.24)1.04(0.82–1.28)0.92(0.72–1.16)0.59
  1. Model I: adjusted for age, sex
  2. Model II: adjusted for Model 1 plus marital status (category), socioeconomic status (category), smoking (category), physical activity (category), chronic disease (category), antidepressant use (category), supplement use (category)
  3. Model III: all variables in Model II plus dietary fiber, EPA plus DHA
  4. Model VI: additionally adjusted for BMI