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Table 2 Dietary intakes of study participants

From: Adherence to low carbohydrate diet and prevalence of psychological disorders in adults

 having psychological disorder Quartiles of LCD score
No (n 2046)Yes (n 1316) 1 (n = 887)2 (n = 816)3 (n = 803)4 (n = 856) 
Mean ± SDMean ± SDPaMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDMean ± SDPb
Total energy (kcal/d)2382.7 ± 823.12372.7 ± 830.70.732484.6 ± 861.12413.4 ± 809.12312.8 ± 806.32298.2 ± 810.2< 0.001
Nutrients
 Carbohydrates (g/d)293.7 ± 115.0291.9 ± 119.10.67362.8 ± 128.1310.7 ± 105.0267.4 ± 94.7227.9 ± 85.6< 0.001
 Proteins (g/d)88.7 ± 33.487.5 ± 33.30.3580.6 ± 31.586.3 ± 30.887.4 ± 32.198.9 ± 36.1< 0.001
 Fats (g/d)98.6 ± 36.998.4 ± 36.70.8682.9 ± 29.595.8 ± 32.7103.1 ± 37.1113.4 ± 40.2< 0.001
 Saturated fats (g/d)23.4 ± 9.223.0 ± 9.20.2919.3 ± 7.322.7 ± 8.124.1 ± 9.027.1 ± 10.2< 0.001
 Polyunsaturated fats (g/d)28.9 ± 11.729.0 ± 11.70.6725.0 ± 9.628.1 ± 10.430.3 ± 12.332.6 ± 12.7< 0.001
 Total fiber (g/d)22.8 ± 9.622.1 ± 9.60.0425.3 ± 10.723.4 ± 9.121.3 ± 8.919.9 ± 8.6< 0.001
 EPA & DHA (g/d)0.31 ± 0.30.29 ± 0.30.030.2 ± 0.20.2 ± 0.20.3 ± 0.20.4 ± 0.4< 0.001
 Vitamin D (mg/d)36.9 ± 23.635.9 ± 22.70.2028.3 ± 19.234.3 ± 19.539.9 ± 25.543.9 ± 25.1< 0.001
 Vitamin B1 (mg/d)1.8 ± 0.91.8 ± 0.90.802.4 ± 1.21.9 ± 0.81.6 ± 0.61.4 ± 0.5< 0.001
 Vitamin B3 (mg/d)24.9 ± 10.625.1 ± 10.80.5827.0 ± 12.325.1 ± 10.523.3 ± 9.524.3 ± 9.8< 0.001
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d)2.0 ± 0.71.9 ± 0.70.051.8 ± 0.71.9 ± 0.72.0 ± 0.72.2 ± 0.8< 0.001
 Folate (mg/d)572.2 ± 235.2573.3 ± 240.10.90681.9 ± 281.6599.2 ± 222.9525.9 ± 192.8477.9 ± 180.5< 0.001
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d)3.0 ± 1.32.9 ± 1.30.092.2 ± 0.92.9 ± 1.13.1 ± 1.23.7 ± 1.5< 0.001
 Iron (mg/d)17.5 ± 7.517.6 ± 7.60.5620.3 ± 9.018.07 ± 7.316.20 ± 6.415.45 ± 6.02< 0.001
 Magnesium (mg/d)330.4 ± 120.9322.1 ± 118.20.05333.4 ± 123.1339.1 ± 121.5320.1 ± 117.8315.8 ± 115.6< 0.001
Food groups
 Fruits (g/d)332.9 ± 246.8289.5 ± 233.8< 0.001395.4 ± 313.0342.77 ± 221.6293.7 ± 203.8229.0 ± 170.2< 0.001
 Vegetables (g/d)242.7 ± 128.3230.0 ± 135.10.006210.3 ± 119.2239.0 ± 123.3248.6 ± 132.6254.6 ± 144.0< 0.001
 White meat (g/d)65.1 ± 48.863.2 ± 49.70.2638.0 ± 25.954.3 ± 33.467.1 ± 44.598.7 ± 62.3< 0.001
 Red meat (g/d)78.2 ± 48.279.6 ± 48.90.4252.5 ± 31.171.2 ± 37.284.7 ± 44.7108.0 ± 58.3< 0.001
 Egg (g/d)25.0 ± 19.825.0 ± 21.30.9518.9 ± 15.822.7 ± 71.227.5 ± 20.131.2 ± 25.0< 0.001
 Legumes, nuts and soy (g/d)57.1 ± 38.858.1 ± 41.80.4946.5 ± 31.956.0 ± 39.960.6 ± 40.467.6 ± 44.2< 0.001
 Low fat dairy (g/d)344.6 ± 276.1313.6 ± 259.40.001277.9 ± 213.5360.1 ± 282.4349.6 ± 279.3346.5 ± 293.2< 0.001
 High fat dairy (g/d)15.0 ± 18.614.8 ± 18.50.7713.5 ± 17.614.5 ± 18.715.8 ± 18.315.9 ± 19.00.018
 Refined grains (g/d)384.1 ± 211.6400.8 ± 221.40.03495.2 ± 277.8407.6 ± 202.7350.4 ± 158.6303.8 ± 139.0< 0.001
 Whole grains (g/d)42.9 ± 74.841.4 ± 80.70.5858.8 ± 105.651.3 ± 83.034.2 ± 56.924.3 ± 38.8< 0.001
 Sugar sweetened beverages and sweets (g/d)52.1 ± 53.055.0 ± 58.00.1463.3 ± 66.052.55 ± 54.651.4 ± 50.245.1 ± 45.1< 0.001
 Tea or coffee drinking (mg/d)371.4 ± 281.3388.4 ± 305.60.09397.9 ± 278.5387.3 ± 280.0377.8 ± 288.6348.9 ± 313.90.04
  1. aObtained by Independent sample t-test
  2. bObtained by ANOVA