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Table 2 General characteristics of participants with and without constipation

From: Empirically derived dietary patterns and constipation among a middle-aged population from China, 2016–2018

VariablesParticipants with constipation (n = 301)Participants without constipation (n = 1966)Significance*
Demographic
 Age (years)50.37 ± 5.1652.65 ± 5.60P < 0.001
Gender
 Male139(46.2)993(50.5)χ2 = 1.957
P = 0.162
 Female162(53.8)973(49.5)
Smoking status (%)
 Never173(57.5)1217(61.9)χ2 = 2.172
P = 0.338
 Former31(10.3)185(9.4)
 Current97(32.2)564(28.7) 
Education (%)
  < High school24(8.0)187(9.5)χ2 = 6.240
P < 0.05
 High school217(72.1)1274(64.8)
  > High school60(19.9)505(25.7) 
Monthly income per person(%)
  ≤ 2500 (RMB)202(34.5)582(29.6)χ2 = 60.351
P < 0.001
 2500–4000 (RMB)218(50.2)987(50.2)
  > 4000 (RMB)33(15.3)397(20.2) 
Physical activity(%)
 Light194(64.5)1339(68.1)χ2 = 3.767
P = 0.152
 Moderate76(25.2)401(20.4)
 Heavy31(10.3)226(11.5) 
 Total energy intake (Kcal/d)1908.2 ± 186.31783.1 ± 155.4P < 0.05
Obese (%)
 Yes49(16.3)265(13.5)χ2 = 1.715
P = 0.190
 No252(83.7)1701(86.5)
Hypertension(%)
 Yes66(21.9)322(16.4)χ2 = 5.665
P = 0.017
 No235(78.1)1644(83.6)
  1. Categorical variables are presented as sum and percentages, and continuous variables are presented as Mean ± SD. Abbreviation: RMB: Ren Min Bi.*P values for continuous variables (independent-samples T or Mann-Whitney test) and for Categorical variables (chi-square test)