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Table 1 Food grouping used in the dietary pattern analyses

From: Empirically derived dietary patterns and constipation among a middle-aged population from China, 2016–2018

Food groupsFood items
Refined grainsRice, porridge, rice in soup, noodles,instant noodles,steamed bun, wonton, dumplings, white breads, toasted bread
Whole grainsCorn, sorghum, millet, oats
TubersSweet potato, potato, taro
VegetablesWild vegetables, green vegetable, spinach, green peppers, tomato Chinese cabbage, radish, cucumer, eggplant
FruitApple,pears, peach, apricots,cherries,grapes,bananas,cantaloupe,watermelon, oranges, grapefruit, kiwi,strawberries and et al
Pickled vegetablesSalted vegetables, Chinese sauerkraut
MushroomsMushroom, shiitakes, enoki
Red meatPork, mutton, beef
Poultry and organsChicken, duck, liver, animal blood
Processed and cooked meatHam and sausage, sauced pork, roast duck
Fish and shrimpFish, shrimp
EggsDuck eggs, chicken eggs
SeafoodSea fish, shrimp, crab,squid, jellyfis, shellfish
Bacon and salted fishSalted meat and duck, salted fish
Salted and preserved eggsSalted duck and chicken eggs, preserved eggs
milkLiquid milk, milk powder, yoghurt
Soya bean and its productsTofu, dried bean curd, soy milk
Miscellaneous beanMung beans, red beans, hemp beans
FatsLard, butter
Vegetable oilSoybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil
Fast foodsKFC, Mcdonald,fried dough sticks and twists, fried cakes,pizza
NutsWalnut, peanuts, almonds, melon seeds
SnacksCookies, sachima, bread, cake, ice cream, candy, sweets,potato chips, shrimp roll, popcorn
HoneyHoney, hydromel
DrinksCoca-cola, sprite, fruit and vegetable drink, fruits juice
Alcoholic beveragesBeer, fruit wine, grape wine
TeaTea,scented tea, wong Lo Kat