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Table 3 Factors associated with stunting using TDHS 2015–2016

From: Trends in prevalence and determinants of stunting in Tanzania: an analysis of Tanzania demographic health surveys (1991–2016)

VariableN (%)Model 1aModel 2bModel 3c
AOR95% CIp-valueAOR95% CIp-valueAOR95% CIp-value
Residence
 Rural6531 (74)Reference        
 Urban2284 (26)0.56(0.50, 0.62)< 0.001      
Maternal age in years
 15–19596(7)   Reference     
 20–242064(23)   1.31(1.06, 1.62)0.014   
 25–292205(25)   1.08(0.84, 1.39)0.540   
 30–341693(19)   1.07(0.8, 1.42)0.662   
 35–391339(15)   1.08(0.78, 1.49)0.634   
 40–44731(8)   1.23(0.86, 1.75)0.248   
 45–49186(2)   1.70(1.09, 2.65)0.019   
Mother’s body mass index (kg/m2)
  < 18.5605(7)   1.09(0.92, 1.3)0.328   
 18.5–24.96034(68)   Reference     
 25.0–30.01478 (17)   0.85(0.75, 0.97)0.015   
  > 30.0676 (8)   0.63(0.51, 0.78)< 0.001   
Mother’s age at 1st birth
  < 205451(62)   0.94(0.84, 1.05)0.282   
 20–293256(37)   Reference     
 30>107(1)   0.99(0.62, 1.59)0.976   
Number of births in last five years
 14014(46)   Reference     
 23917(44)   0.99(0.88, 1.11)0.867   
 3820(9)   0.85(0.7, 1.03)0.090   
  > 364(1)   0.48(0.26, 0.91)0.024   
Number of living children
 11637 (19)   Reference     
 21793 (20)   1.07(0.89, 1.28)0.455   
 31575 (18)   1.00(0.81, 1.24)0.993   
 41155(13)   1.11(0.86, 1.42)0.429   
 5899(10)   1.17(0.88, 1.56)0.267   
 6–151755(20)   1.17(0.86, 1.59)0.325   
Highest educational level
 No education1891 (21)   Reference     
 Primary5686 (65)   0.99(0.88, 1.1)0.830   
 Secondary1161(13)   0.83(0.63, 1.06)0.305   
 Higher76(1)   0.56(0.16, 0.91)0.018   
Head of household
 Male7348(83)   Reference     
 Female1467(17)   1.16(1.03, 1.31)0.014   
Number of household members
 1–53429 (39)   Reference     
 6–104137 (47)   0.88(0.79, 0.99)0.027   
 > 101248(14)   0.75(0.65, 0.87)0.000   
Wealth index
 Poorest2009(23)   Reference     
 Poorer1932(22)   0.96(0.85, 1.09)0.563   
 Middle1778(20)   0.98(0.86, 1.12)0.758   
 Richer1818(21)   0.65(0.56, 0.76)< 0.001   
 Richest1278(14)   0.42(0.34, 0.52)< 0.001   
Age of child (months)
 0–111970(22)      Reference  
 12–232055(23)      1.50(0.97, 2.32)0.069
 24–351688(19)      1.75(1.09, 2.79)0.019
 36–471580(18)      1.38(0.86, 2.21)0.181
 48–591521(17)      0.99(0.62, 1.59)0.967
Sex of child
 male4469(51)      Reference  
 female4345(49)      0.77(0.68, 0.87)< 0.001
Birthweight (g)
 low < 2500340 (6)      2.14(1.68, 2.71)< 0.001
 4000 > normal> = 25004551(82)      Reference  
 high > = 5000677 (12)      0.65(0.54, 0.79)< 0.001
Duration of breastfeeding (months)
  < 6962 (11)      Reference  
 6–121114(13)      1.63(1.18, 2.24)0.003
 13–241281(15)      2.91(1.73, 4.91)< 0.001
  > 24111(1)      5.44(2.57, 11.49)< 0.001
 Inconsistent breastfeeding5288(60)      3.46(2.07, 5.78)< 0.001
 Never breastfed58(1)      4.29(1.77, 10.37)0.001
  1. N (%) N frequency; (%) percentage of frequency, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, C.I. Confidence interval
  2. aModel-1: adjusted for residence place
  3. bModel-2: adjusted for residence place and all variables shown under Model-2
  4. cModel-3: adjusted for residence place and all variables shown under Model-3