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Table 2 Stunting prevalence among children under 5 according to the descriptive characteristics in TDHS 1991–2016

From: Trends in prevalence and determinants of stunting in Tanzania: an analysis of Tanzania demographic health surveys (1991–2016)

variables1991–1992199619992004–20052009–20102015–2016
%95% C.I.%95% C.I.%95% C.I.%95% C.I.%95% C.I.%95% C.I.
Sex of child
 Male5250.6954.095250.6254.185148.0753.594745.2948.504139.7643.133735.5738.39
 Female4745.0048.374644.2347.844642.9148.464239.9343.104341.0244.353230.7833.57
P-value< 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  0.32  < 0.001  
Age of child (months)
 0–113027.7132.202724.8329.512521.9128.932623.5527.664239.5644.681614.5517.81
 12–235148.4753.475451.0256.325348.2856.804846.0350.894037.4842.763836.3140.53
 24–356259.2064.506258.7564.455955.0263.635249.4154.514339.8645.434644.0848.85
 36–475956.0861.836056.7462.665651.5560.955350.2255.554339.8345.294239.1043.97
 48–595248.7254.614946.1152.305348.8358.144643.1448.684541.6147.423330.7135.44
P-value< 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  0.34  < 0.001  
Birthweight (g)
 Low6054.9164.256357.1668.177364.1581.855851.4364.054033.4846.524842.8253.41
 Normal4644.1147.944341.3745.344441.0147.474139.4642.994139.0642.673130.0932.77
 High4033.8145.884135.4947.072719.2935.112823.2731.934035.0044.512623.0429.68
 P-value< 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  0.84  < 0.001  
Body mass index (kg/m2) of mother respondents
 Low (< 18.5)5752.9860.885449.8558.90   4944.1352.894641.6249.443935.2943.11
 Normal (18.5–24.9)5048.6151.315149.4052.29   4645.0547.614240.4643.233735.3937.81
 Overweight (25–30)4137.4045.003834.4341.81   3228.9135.144238.8345.413128.9333.70
 Obese (> 30)4129.9049.313829.5046.47   3217.1228.884236.9449.353116.8023.01
P-value< 0.001  < 0.001     < 0.001  0.56  < 0.001  
Age of mother respondents at 1st birth
 0–195150.0252.925048.5251.644846.0350.814543.3946.194240.0342.973533.7236.25
 20–294543.1047.414845.3349.754844.5051.354341.2245.094341.0645.103432.5835.86
 30 and above4223.5460.335837.3478.04577.71106.584127.2054.284630.7060.612819.5937.02
P-value< 0.001  0.33  0.76  0.43  0.53  0.13  
Time after the birth at which the mother respondent first breastfed the last child
 Immediately4846.3050.654543.0847.19   4240.5543.713937.2341.173432.8535.82
 Within 1 day4543.0447.585046.9252.16   4644.1047.694341.7544.933533.0536.08
 Over 1 day4742.8250.264843.2252.19   4844.0652.274641.0850.223530.2539.10
P-value0.20  0.14     < 0.001  0.01  0.90  
Duration of breastfeeding (months)
  < 62622.8928.842218.9825.152317.9627.262118.5424.073935.5942.531310.7515.01
 6–124137.8043.224036.7142.433732.1641.243532.8937.724340.3845.801916.9221.54
 13–245553.6256.765553.0556.435451.5556.805048.0351.054240.1043.223835.2840.60
  > 246460.3367.836863.9771.486660.0571.536055.8063.204843.3851.825242.8661.56
 Inconsistent
breastfeeding
241.0546.01192.8634.1833−20.8687.53339.2157.463921.8056.994139.3241.97
 Never get breastfeeding6649.6983.645747.2767.634229.2353.844638.1854.784334.6153.113420.7847.14
P-value< 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  0.13  < 0.001  
Number of births in last five years
 15249.5653.635249.8453.914744.1250.414542.8646.524139.4643.233331.8734.77
 24947.2750.524846.5550.165047.2152.874543.1846.434340.8244.213735.1138.13
 34541.0748.664440.2247.974539.5350.374137.7644.174339.5746.773329.3635.94
  > 35844.6871.114831.8763.3743−6.5892.293523.6446.953520.4849.08187.6628.70
P-value0.01  0.02  0.35  0.10  0.35  0.00  
Number of living children
 14845.5151.465047.2853.394439.3648.474542.2147.854137.6143.853229.9934.48
 24744.6950.064946.1952.094136.9645.244442.0146.814138.6943.793532.3036.71
 34945.7651.594844.6550.554842.8552.414542.7047.914238.8744.203129.1033.73
 45046.5052.874945.2852.015549.4959.654340.2646.354138.3844.583532.1937.68
 55349.3856.635045.9853.714841.8654.464440.0547.284339.6946.833834.4540.83
 6–155148.4653.635047.3052.955752.1861.244340.5645.694441.6247.113835.8740.44
P-value0.21  0.83  < 0.001  0.94  0.77  < 0.01  
Highest educational level
 No education5149.3653.385452.1056.835046.5453.884744.8149.274239.7044.343937.2541.71
 Primary4947.4950.544846.4449.504846.0850.804442.7245.414341.0843.943533.9836.44
 Secondary3426.7041.652618.6733.512312.5633.603326.0939.243630.7641.052522.4927.65
 Higher5327.9177.36      102.7516.975324.7481.9381.7414.48
P-value< 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  0.02  < 0.001  
Sex of head of household
 Male4947.7850.334947.6750.424745.3649.624341.8444.304240.5743.163432.8535.02
 Female5349.5456.675147.2553.895347.5957.465047.1252.714340.2046.003835.5740.51
P-value0.08  0.64  0.07  < 0.001  0.62  0.01  
Number of household members
 1–55148.8853.215047.6551.895147.5254.004644.1147.724240.1143.923533.3036.48
 6–105148.8852.304947.4150.964945.7051.644543.3146.614240.5344.023533.7936.71
  > 104441.8147.164844.6451.784338.4947.223733.7439.674238.5644.673229.1134.36
P-value< 0.001  1  0.02  < 0.001  0.89  0.13  
Residence of household
 Rural5048.8051.455149.8552.655250.0154.304645.0447.554341.2343.873836.6539.00
 Urban4743.9049.544036.9942.932924.4733.223532.3637.434037.4342.782523.5927.18
P-value< 0.01  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  0.10  < 0.001