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Table 6 The change in muscle strength measured as handgrip strength and knee extension strength and a 30 s chair-standing test, analysed in an ANCOVA including the baseline covariates that may influence the outcome (age, ethnicity, intervention group and BMI)

From: Effect of vitamin D fortified foods on bone markers and muscle strength in women of Pakistani and Danish origin living in Denmark: a randomised controlled trial

CoefficientsEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIP
Δ Handgrip strengthModel 1 (minimal)Model 2 (maximal)
Intercept16.80(3.56; 10.0)< 0.0001 (***)6.56(2.32; 10.8)< 0.003 (**)
Baseline handgrip strength−0.21(−0.31; − 0.12)< 0.0001 (***)− 0.22(− 0.31; − 0.12)< 0.0001 (***)
Ethnicity:
 Danish
 Pakistani− 0.53(−1.63; 0.58)0.35− 0.63(−1.82; 0.56)0.30
Intervention group:
 Fortified0.38(−0.62; 1.37)0.460.48(−0.54; 1.50)0.35
 Placebo
 BMI   0.01(−0.11; 0.13)0.88
 Age   −0.003(−0.05; 0.06)0.99
Δ Knee extension strengthModel 1 (minimal)Model 2 (maximal)
Intercept18.66(4.16; 13.16)< 0.0001 (***)9.93(3.82; 16.21)< 0.0001 (***)
Baseline knee extension strength−0.24(−0.37; − 0.12)< 0.0001 (***)− 0.25(− 0.38; − 0.12)< 0.0001 (***)
Ethnicity:
 Danish
 Pakistani−1.96(−3.69; − 0.23)0.03 (*)−1.95(−4.24; 0.54)0.03 (*)
Intervention group:
 Fortified1.23(−0.34; 2.81)0.121.21(−0.94; 3.52)0.13
 Placebo
 BMI   −0.02(−0.20; 0.18)0.87
 Age   −0.03(−0.11; 0.06)0.46
Δ Chair-standing testModel 1 (minimal)Model 2 (maximal)
Intercept12.54(−0.22; 5.31)0.075.90(0.78; 11.0)0.02 (*)
Baseline chair-standing−0.05(− 0.15; 0.06)0.41− 0.06(− 0.17; 0.06)0.30
Ethnicity:
 Danish
 Pakistani−0.56(−1.86; 0.74)0.39−0.01(−1.45; 1.24)0.88
Intervention group:
 Fortified0.94(−0.34; 2.22)0.150.93(−0.34; 2.20)0.15
 Placebo
 BMI   −0.16(−0.31; − 0.004)0.04 (*)
 Age   0.02(−0.05; 0.09)0.56
  1. 1The reference group is included in the intercept: Danish ethnicity and placebo study group