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Table 5 The effect of intervention with vitamin D fortified foods on the markers of bone turnover OC, BALP, P1NP and CTX, analysed in an ANCOVA including the baseline covariates that may influence the outcome (age, ethnicity, intervention group and BMI)

From: Effect of vitamin D fortified foods on bone markers and muscle strength in women of Pakistani and Danish origin living in Denmark: a randomised controlled trial

CoefficientsEstimate95% CIPEstimate95% CIP
Δ OCModel 1 (minimal)Model 2 (maximal)
Intercept13.14(0.95; 5.32)0.005 (**)6.53(1.69; 11.4)0.01 (*)
Baseline OC−0.20(− 0.27; − 0.12)< 0.0001 (***)− 0.21(− 0.29; − 0.13)< 0.0001 (***)
Ethnicity:
 Danish
 Pakistani0.50(−0.87; 1.83)0.50−0.70(− 0.67; 2.07)0.31
Intervention group:
 Fortified−0.57(−1.87; 0.72)0.39−0.60(−1.86; 0.66)0.35
 Placebo
 BMI   −0.10(− 0.25; 0.05)0.20
 Age   − 0.01(−0.08; 0.06)0.69
Δ BALPModel 1 (minimal)Model 2 (maximal)
Intercept13.4(1.93; 4.94)< 0.0001 (***)0.50(−2.6; 3.59)0.75
Baseline BALP−0.32(−0.40; − 0.24)< 0.0001 (***)−0.25(− 0.33; − 0.17)< 0.0001 (***)
Ethnicity:
 Danish
 Pakistani0.2(−0.84; 1.23)0.710.07(− 0.93; 1.08)0.88
Intervention group:
 Fortified−0.03(−1.06; 1.00)0.950.19(−0.76; 1.13)0.70
 Placebo
 BMI   0.05(−0.07; 0.16)0.43
 Age   0.02(−0.03; 0.07)0.42
Δ P1NPModel 1 (minimal)Model 2 (maximal)
Intercept16.81(1.78; 11.84)0.005 (**)13.4(1.10; 25.8)0.03 (*)
Baseline P1NP−0.17(− 0.25; − 0.09)< 0.0001 (***)− 0.19(− 0.28; − 0.11)< 0.0001 (***)
Ethnicity:
 Danish
 Pakistani1.88(−1.52; 5.28)0.281.79(−1.78; 5.35)0.32
Intervention group:
 Fortified−1.36(−4.75; 2.04)0.43−1.63(−5.02; 1.76)0.34
 Placebo
 BMI   0.04(−0.37; 0.45)0.85
 Age   −0.18(−0.36; 0.01)0.07
Δ CTXModel 1 (minimal)Model 2 (maximal)
Intercept10.06(0.03; 0.10)< 0.0001 (***)7.2−2(−0.03; 0.17)0.15
Baseline CTX−0.33(−0.42; − 0.23)< 0.0001 (***)−0.33(− 0.43; − 0.23)< 0.0001 (***)
Ethnicity:
 Danish
 Pakistani−0.004(−0.03; 0.02)0.80−0.003(− 0.03; 0.03)0.82
Intervention group:
 Fortified−0.01(−0.04; 0.02)0.40−0.01(− 0.04; 0.01)0.37
 Placebo
 BMI   −2.1−4(−0.004; 0.003)0.91
 Age   −2.8−6(−0.002; 0.002)1.00
  1. 1The reference group is included in the intercept: Danish ethnicity and placebo study group