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Table 4 Muscle strength and body composition at baseline, endpoint and the change following intervention1

From: Effect of vitamin D fortified foods on bone markers and muscle strength in women of Pakistani and Danish origin living in Denmark: a randomised controlled trial

 DanishPakistani 
 Placebo (n = 35)Fortified (n = 31)Placebo (n = 37)Fortified (n = 33)P2
Handgrip strength (kg)
 Baseline34.5 (4.2)de33.2 (4.2)c27.9 (6.6)ce30.3 (6.2)d< 0.001
 Endpoint34.07 (3.8)de33.3 (4.3)c28.0 (6.1)ce30.3 (5.5)d< 0.001
 Change−0.46 (2.3)− 0.1 (3.0)0.2 (3.0)0.5 (3.5)0.66
Knee extension strength (kg)
 Baseline34.0 (5.7)e36.5 (5.9)bc27.7 (6.5)ce31.1 (7.7)b< 0.001
 Endpoint35.0 (5.9)e37.5 (5.4)bc27.5 (6.7)ce31.2 (7.8)b< 0.001
 Change0.3 (4.5)1.0 (3.9)−0.15 (5.0)0.6 (4.3)0.79
Chair-stand test (Mean rep/min)
 Baseline23.4 (5.9)24.0 (5.0)c19.9 (5.5)c22.6 (7.1)0.04
 Endpoint24.7 (6.6)26.8 (6.5)c21.9 (5.9)c23.9 (7.2)0.045
 Change1.2 (3.0)2.7 (3.6)1.3 (3.4)1.6 (3.6)0.35
Mean BMI (kg/m2)
 Baseline24.6 (5.1)24.1 (4.0)bc27.1 (24.8)c27.4 (4.7)b0.007
 Endpoint24.4 (4.3)24.1 (3.9)bc27.2 (5.1)c27.2 (4.3)b0.005
 Change0.1 (0.5)0.2 (0.5)0.2 (0.5)0.1 (0.5)0.97
Mean fat %
 Baseline32.6 (7.6)de30.1 (7.3)bc37.1 (6.1)ce37.6 (5.7)bd< 0.001
 Endpoint32.0 (7.4)de30.7 (7.1)bc36.6 (6.4)ce37.4 (5.6)bd< 0.001
 Change−0.11 (1.9)0.7 (2.3)−0.3 (1.4)0.16 (1.7)0.20
Mean lean mass (kg)
 Baseline46.5 (4.7)e47.1 (3.0)bc42.8 (4.7)ce43.8 (4.7)b< 0.001
 Endpoint46.5 (4.3)de46.8 (3.0)bc43.2 (4.8)ce43.16 (4.1)bd< 0.001
 Change0.22 (1.3)−0.05 (1.3)0.43 (1.0)0.06 (0.87)0.37
  1. 1Means and SD unless otherwise specified.
  2. 2P values for comparisons over the four study group were determined with the use of a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. Significant comparisons a: DK Placebo vs DK Fortified, b: PA Fortified vs DK Fortified, c: PA Placebo vs DK Fortified, d: PA Fortified vs DK Placebo, e: PA Placebo vs DK Placebo, f: PA Placebo vs PA Fortified.