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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by study group and ethnicity1

From: Effect of vitamin D fortified foods on bone markers and muscle strength in women of Pakistani and Danish origin living in Denmark: a randomised controlled trial

 Danish  Pakistani  
 Total (n = 66)Placebo (n = 35)Fortified (n = 31)Total (n = 70)Placebo (n = 37)Fortified (n = 33)
Born in Denmark (%)9910099627054
Years lived in Denmark2202118
Mean age in years (SD)33 (11)34 (11)32 (11)36 (9)36 (9)36 (10)
Age range (years)18–5018–5018–5018–5018–5018–47
Mean weight in kg (SD)68 (13)70 (15)67 (11)70 (12)68 (13)70 (12)
BMI (kg/m2)*24 (5)25 (5)24 (4)27 (5)27 (5)27 (5)
Mean serum 25(OH)D (nmol/L)49.6 (18)46.2 (19)53.3 (17)46.9 (22)49.0 (23)44.5 (21)
Mean plasma creatinine (μmol/l)61.4 (10)61.4 (9)61.4 (10)58.0 (9)57.8 (10)58.0 (8)
Median dietary vitamin D intake (μg/d)*1.5 (1.0; 2.0)1.5 (1.0; 2.0)1.7 (1.0; 2.1)1.1 (1.0; 2.0)1.1 (0.8; 1.4)1.0 (0.7; 1.7)
Median dietary calcium intake (mg/d)465 (324; 688)487 (309; 685)442 (331; 692)441 (260; 589)422 (262; 547)465 (259; 634)
Smokers (%)141413436
Alcohol drinkers (%)8689841.430
Wearing hijab (%)000444345
  1. 1Means and SD unless otherwise specified. If non-normally distributed, medians and 25th and 75th percentiles.
  2. 2Years lived in Denmark on average, if not born in Denmark.
  3. *Significant difference between Danish (all) and Pakistani (all) women in an unpaired t test (P < 0.05).
  4. Significant difference between Danish (all) and Pakistani (all) women in a Pearson’s chi2 test.