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Table 1 Mean (± SEM) values of study variables by season among US women (N = 52) living in North Dakota, USA

From: Concurrent validity of skin carotenoid status as a concentration biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake compared to multiple 24-h recalls and plasma carotenoid concentrations across one year: a cohort study

  Spring Summer Fall Winter P-value
Mean ± SEM
 Skin carotenoid status
  RRS intensitiesb 38,238x ± 2617 34,629y ± 1910 37,044x ± 2043 36,563xy ± 1818 < 0.001
  RS intensitiesb 0.091 ± 0.004 0.087 ± 0.004 0.088 ± 0.004 0.088 ± 0.004 0.500
 Dietary Intakea
  Vegetable and fruit (g/d) 188 ± 16 220 ± 16 194 ± 16 187 ± 18 0.441
  Dietary carotenoids (mg/d) 12.1 ± 0.76 12.0 ± 0.97 11.9 ± 0.72 11.9 ± 1.11 0.983
  Geometric mean -1SEM, +1SEM  
 Total plasma carotenoids (μM/L)c 2.53; 2.36, 2.71 x 2.26; 2.11, 2.42 y 2.46; 2.30, 2.64 xy 2.34; 2.18, 2.51 xy 0.025
  1. aMeasured by the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool at 36 times over the year
  2. bMeasured at 12 times over the year
  3. cMeasured at 4 times over the year
  4. •Analyzed carotenoids were α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin.
  5. x,y, Values between seasons with the same superscript letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) by Tukey contrasts.
  6. RS, reflection spectroscopy.
  7. RRS, resonance Raman spectroscopy.