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Table 2 Causal coefficients from MR analysis for the associations of 25(OH)D with metabolic syndrome components (continuous variables)

From: Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome: a mendelian randomization study

  βXY [per 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D] GRScombined GRSsynthesis GRSmetabolism
βZY [per 1 unit increase in GRScombined] βIV [per 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D] βZY [per 1 unit increase in GRSsynthesis] βIV [per 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D] βZY [per 1 unit increase in GRSmetabolism] βIV [per 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D]
Waist circumference 0.128 (−0.005, 0.262) −0.038 (−0.155, 0.080) 0.388 (− 0.814,1.590) − 0.061 (− 0.227, 0.104) 0.726 (−1.245, 2.697) − 0.004 (− 0.180, 0.172) 0.030 (−1.306, 1.366)
Fasting plasma glucose − 0.012 (− 0.034, 0.011) 0.017 (− 0.002, 0.037) −0.174 (− 0.376, 0.029) 0.027 (− 0.001, 0.055) −0.321 (− 0.660, 0.018) 0.004 (− 0.026, 0.034) −0.030 (− 0.253, 0.193)
ln(triglycerides) − 0.059 (− 0.067, − 0.051) 0.002 (− 0.004, 0.009) −0.020 (− 0.080, 0.040) 0.002 (− 0.007, 0.012) −0.024 (− 0.141, 0.093) 0.003 (− 0.007, 0.013) −0.023 (− 0.097, 0.051)
High-density lipoprotein − 0.003 (− 0.008, 0.001) 0.001 (− 0.003, 0.005) −0.010 (− 0.050, 0.030) 0.001 (− 0.005, 0.007) −0.012 (− 0.082, 0.058) 0.001 (− 0.005, 0.007) −0.008 (− 0.053, 0.037)
Systolic blood pressure 0.468 (0.168, 0.768) 0.018 (−0.246, 0.283) − 0.184 (−2.884, 2.516) 0.064 (− 0.309, 0.437) −0.762 (−5.200, 3.676) −0.054 (− 0.451, 0.344) 0.409 (− 2.606, 3.424)
Diastolic blood pressure 0.287 (0.092, 0.481) − 0.006 (− 0.177, 0.166) 0.061 (− 1.679, 1.801) −0.014 (− 0.256, 0.228) 0.167 (− 2.703, 3.037) 0.007 (− 0.251, 0.264) −0.053 (− 1.998, 1.892)
  1. Data are presented as regression coefficients (95% confidence interval). 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, GRS genetic risk score, MR mendelian randomization
  2. The bold number represents significance (P < 0.05)
  3. The model was adjusted for age, sex, urban/rural residence, economic status, current smoking, waist circumference, diabetes, hypertension, HDL-cholesterol, ln(triglycerides)