Skip to main content

Table 5 Time trends and comparisons between birth cohorts in food and beverage intake

From: Time trends in nutrient intake and dietary patterns among five birth cohorts of 70-year-olds examined 1971–2016: results from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies, Sweden

Birth cohort1901–021911–12192219301944 
Examination years1971–721981–831992–932000–022014–16 
Womenn = 188n = 130n = 136n = 321n = 474Linear trend
 Mean (SD) gram/dayMean (SD) gram/dayMean (SD) gram/dayMean (SD) gram/dayMean (SD) gram/dayP value
 Fish and shellfish/seafood46 (22)31 (20)ª54 (35)ª ʰ54 (36)ª ʰ65 (43)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Meat and processed meat66 (39)78 (42)ª84 (45)ª81 (41)ª69 (40)ʰ ʲ ʳ0.029
 Poultry8 (8)7 (6)8 (9)12 (13)ª ʰ ʲ22 (25)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Eggs26 (21)20 (12)ª20 (19)ª17 (16)ª26 (21)ʰ ʲ ʳ0.074
 Potatoes129 (69)124 (65)95 (58)ª ʰ97 (51)ª ʰ81 (66)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Vegetables and pulses53 (41)56 (42)143 (113)ª ʰ145 (94)ª ʰ205 (123)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Fruits and berries155 (116)129 (83)ª182 (126)ʰ205 (134)ª ʰ260 (157)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Keyhole milk products147 (232)162 (207)146 (221)165 (211)78 (201)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ0.007
 Non-Keyhole milk products204 (225)248 (237)205 (232)184 (222)ʰ189 (182)ʰ0.001
 Cream and crème fraîche17 (21)23 (23)ª18 (20)ʰ23 (23)ª ʲ36 (45)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Cheese28 (19)32 (21)43 (36)ª ʰ46 (37)ª ʰ49 (45)ª ʰ< 0.0001
 Fast food0 (0)0 (2)0 (3)ª2 (6)ª ʰ ʲ3 (9)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Pasta, rice and food grain7 (10)17 (34)ª22 (22)ª31 (31)ª ʰ ʲ35 ((43)ª ʰ ʲ< 0.0001
 Bread refined61 (50)48 (52)ª37 (46)ª35 (41)ª ʰ24 (34)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Bread fibre-rich36 (40)65 (51)ª54 (38)ª65 (45)ª ʲ58 (41)ª ʳ< 0.0001
 Cereals92 (98)94 (87)63 (74)ª ʰ40 (52)ª ʰ ʲ42 (58)ª ʰ ʲ< 0.0001
 Savoury bakery11 (13)9 (9)11 (14)12 (16)ʰ12 (14)ʰ0.005
 Sweet bakery54 (44)53 (45)35 (29)ª ʰ34 (31)ª ʰ21 (24)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Desserts62 (65)73 (88)48 (68)ʰ53 (62)ʰ49 (71)ª ʰ0.003
 Sweet condiments34 (25)34 (31)27 (28)ª21 (22)ª ʰ ʲ14 (18)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Sweets, candy and chocolate6 (10)5 (7)9 (19)ʰ11 (12)ª ʰ12 (18)ª ʰ< 0.0001
 Salads0 (0)0 (0)1 (7)0 (2)ª ʰ4 (19)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Soups33 (22)42 (28)ª40 (48)50 (53)ª29 (40)ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Sauces and condiments0 (0)0 (0)5 (12)ª ʰ9 (15)ª ʰ ʲ25 (29)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Substitute products0 (0)0 (0)1 (5)ª ʰ0 (5)17 (77)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Margarine^17 (13)25 (15)ª22 (21)ª21 (17)ª ʰ12 (12)0.045
 Butter^8 (12)5 (10)ª3 (8)ª3 (9)ª ʰ1 (4)< 0.0001
 Vegetable oil^0 (1)0 (0)ª1 (2)ª ʰ3 (5)ª ʰ ʲ2 (6)< 0.0001
 Snacks0 (0)0 (0)0 (1)ª ʰ1 (2)ª ʰ ʲ2 (8)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Nuts and seeds0 (0)0 (0)2 (6)ª ʰ1 (4)ª ʰ12 (17)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Juice29 (62)37 (72)57 (119)ª68 (99)ª ʰ49 (85)ª ʳ< 0.0001
 Coffee437 (177)508 (246)ª499 (280)ª473 (320)423 (338)ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Tea146 (59)169 (82)ª122 (312)136 (200)ʰ195 (280)ª ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Soda122 (208)68 (110)ª57 (124)ª79 (179)ª33 (92)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Alcoholic beverages*46 (75)49 (81)63 (99)90 (109)ʰ ʲ107 (127)ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
Menn = 182n = 132n = 63n = 233n = 387 
 Fish and shellfish/seafood58 (35)43 (25)ª69 (39)ª ʰ65 (44)ª ʰ77 (57)ª ʰ ʳ< 0.0001
 Meat and processed meat80 (30)96 (47)ª125 (65)ª ʰ110 (49)ª ʰ ʲ97 (51)ª ʲ ʳ0.119
 Poultry7 (7)6 (7)5 (7)13 (14)ª ʰ ʲ22 (21)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Eggs31 (21)32 (33)25 (20)23 (24)ª ʰ30 (24)ʳ0.462
 Potatoes202 (105)209 (95)156 (91)ª ʰ136 (65)ª ʰ125 (91)ª ʰ ʲ< 0.0001
 Vegetables and pulses44 (34)47 (47)96 (63)ª ʰ129 (101)ª ʰ ʲ186 (141)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Fruits and berries132 (95)130 (100)142 (89)178 (138)ª ʰ ʲ228 (173)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Keyhole milk products118 (235)171(283)158 (255)162 (253)59 (144) ª ʰ ʲ ʳ0.194
 Non-Keyhole milk products267 (273)313 (278)219 (239)ʰ259 (320)209 (235)ª ʰ ʳ0.253
 Cream and crème fraîche15 (21)19 (22)15 (21)21 (20)ª29 (31)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Cheese33 (23)38 (30)46 (42)ª58 (46)ª ʰ43 (31)ª ʳ< 0.0001
 Fast food0 (0)0 (3)1 (4)2 (7) ª ʰ6 (13)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Pasta, rice and food grain8 (12)14 (17)ª23 (26)ª ʰ35 (37)ª ʰ ʲ45 (46)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Bread refined86 (64)92 (68)55 (56)ª ʰ55 (51)ª ʰ34 (44)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Bread fibre-rich43 (54)57 (65)ª76 (54)ª78 (56)ª ʰ75 (53)ª ʰ< 0.0001
 Cereals106 (102)102 (114)98 (112)58 (68)ª ʰ ʲ48 (66)ª ʰ ʲ< 0.0001
 Savoury bakery17 (15)15 (14)11 (13)ª ʰ14 (19)15 (21)0.01
 Sweet bakery64 (60)56 (46)43 (41)ª45 (35)ª ʰ22 (25)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Desserts56 (67)73 (76)ª45 (54)ʰ57 (73)ʰ53 (71)ʰ0.798
 Sweet condiments42 (26)45 (34)49 (58)36 (38)ʰ17 (20)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Sweets, candy and chocolate6 (9)6 (9)10 (15)11 (14)ª ʰ12 (18)ª ʰ< 0.0001
 Salads0 (0)0 (0)0 (1)1 (7)4 (27)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Soups41 (34)54 (43)ª66 (139)51 (60)ª35 (53)ʰ ʳ< 0.0001
 Sauces and condiments0 (0)0 (0)4 (14)ª ʰ14 (19)ª ʰ ʲ37 (36)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Substitute products0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (3)ª9 (49)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Margarine^21 (17)30 (21)ª33 (20)ª29 (25)ª16 (15)0.007
 Butter^11 (15)11 (20)2 (7)ª ʰ3 (10)ª ʰ2 (7)< 0.0001
 Vegetable oil^1 (1)0 (0)1 (2)ª ʰ3 (6)ª ʰ ʲ2 (9)< 0.0001
 Snacks0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (3)ª ʰ ʲ2 (6)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Nuts and seeds0 (0)0 (1)0 (1)ª2 (10)ª ʰ ʲ10 (16)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ< 0.0001
 Juice12 (37)24 (62)37 (88)ª85 (134)ª ʰ ʲ72 (112)ª ʰ ʲ< 0.0001
 Coffee486 (229)572 (254)ª520 (363)499 (348)ʰ455 (358)ʰ< 0.0001
 Tea162 (76)191 (85)ª129 (194)ʰ170 (236)163 (235)ʲ< 0.0001
 Soda120 (199)99 (129)134 (222)172 (318)ª ʰ57 (138)ª ʰ ʲ ʳ0.041
 Alcoholic beverages*183 (193)164 (207)160 (168)231 (228)ʰ ʲ237 (255)ʰ ʲ< 0.0001
  1. * Linear trends in intake of alcoholic beverages are based on data from 1981 to 2016
  2. ^ Linear trends in intake of margarine, butter and vegetable oil are based on data from 1971 to 2002
  3. ¶ Keyhole is the National Food Agency-labelling scheme, which guides healthy food choices. For milk and yogurt to meet the criteria for the Keyhole, fat content has to be limited to a maximum of 0.7%, and for flavoured products there is an additional limit for sugars: a maximum of 9%
  4. ªSignificant difference compared with birth cohort1901–02
  5. ʰSignificant difference compared with birth cohort 1911–12
  6. ʲSignificant difference compared with birth cohort 1922
  7. ʳSignificant difference compared with birth cohort1930